Technicote > Glossary
TERM DESCRIPTION

0-Split

a designation for sheet pressure
sensitive label stock that does not have any splits or compression
scores in the liner.

2-Dimensional Symbols

see stacked codes.

8 Pt. Tag

a pressure sensitive face stock which
has a semigloss finish and is 8 mils thick. It is used when stiffness of
the label is important. Opacity is high because of its thickness.

A/N

see alphanumeric .

abrasiveness

tendency of a paper, paper coating or
ink to wear die edges, slitting blades, etc.

abrasion resistance

the ability of the surface to resist
rubbing or other frictional forces without being worn away.

absolute humidity

the actual amount of water vapor
present in air, usually expressed in grains per cubic foot of volume.
See also humidity and relative humidity.

absorption

capillary attraction of surfaces to
draw off the liquid or adhesive film into the substrate. Inks will also
absorb into most paper face stocks.

ac

abbreviation for acrylic. This is a
designation for top coating on foil face stock that is acrylic top
coated. Acrylic top coatings are compatible with water or solvent based
flexo inks, but are not compatible with offset printing. NC or
nitrocellulose coatings are used for offset printing.

accelerated aging

procedures for subjecting pressure
sensitive label stock to special environmental conditions in order to
predict the course of natural aging. We test adhesives with accelerated
aging techniques to predict shelf life and long term performance. Most
test procedures are based on storage of the sample at elevated
temperature conditions at a specific humidity.

accumulator

another name for festoon. See
festoon.

acetate

a transparent film which is more
moisture resistant than cellophane. It does not weather well compared to
polyesters and vinyls because it has little UV resistance. Normally it
is only recommended for indoor applications. Acetate volume has been
largely replaced by polystyrene which is much less expensive.
Polystyrene otherwise has similar characteristics.

acid free

a material with a neutral pH. The
adhesive or product is neither acidic or alkaline. This is an important
property for labels that need to last forever. Acidic materials tend to
yellow with age.

acrylic adhesives

adhesives composed of specific
synthetic polymers or co-polymers which are inherently pressure
sensitive. Generally acrylic adhesives do not offer as high of quick
stick properties as rubber or latex based adhesives, but they have
better aging characteristics. They have excellent UV resistance. Some
are used for repositionable label applications.

activate

a change in an adhesive film from a
dry or dormant stage to a useful, sticky state. It is a common term used
with moistening of water sensitive adhesives and heating of heat
sensitive adhesives.

adhesion

the affinity that an adhesive has for
the material to which it is applied. Degree of adhesion is usually
affected by the chemical nature of the substrate, surface shape and
surface conditions of the material to which a label is applied.

adhesion build up

an increase in the peel adhesion
value of a pressure sensitive adhesive after application. Acrylic
permanent adhesives offer adhesion build up which enables them to be
used for some repositionalble applications. Adhesion build up in a
removable adhesive is not a good property. If adhesion builds up too
much, the adhesive will become permanent.

adhesive

a substance capable of holding
materials together by surface attachment.

adhesive bleed

another term for adhesive ooze. In
some cases adhesives could bleed so much that they go through the face
stock, making it transparent looking. Many rubber based pressure
sensitive adhesives will bleed after prolonged contact with a vinyl
substrate. This is caused by plasticizer migration through the adhesive.
The plasticizer softens the adhesive to a point where it flows through
the face stock.

adhesive migration

this occurs when the adhesive moves
through what seems to be a solid object. Adhesive migration could cause
adhesive contamination for the contents of the labeled package.

adhesive residue

the remaining adhesive left on
substrate after the label is removed. This can be an important factor in
end user selection of removable adhesives. On one hand they want the
adhesive to stick well enough that it does not flag, but on the other
hand they want the adhesive to remove cleanly without adhesive residue.

adhesive transfer

the transfer of adhesive from its
normal position to the substrate. Most of Technicote pressure sensitive
adhesives are coated on the liner. When the liner and face stock are
laminated, the adhesive transfers from the liner to the face stock.

age-down

an adverse reaction between silicone
release liners and adhesive which causes the release values to decrease
(become easier) over a short period of time, usually denotes an
incompatibility between release and adhesive

age-up

an adverse reaction between silicone
release liner and adhesive which causes the release values to accelerate
(become tighter) over a short period of time, usually denotes an
incompatibility between release and adhesive

aging

the changes that occur to a material
with the passage of time.

AIAG

Automotive Industry Action Group. is
responsible for automotive industry standards pertaining to bar code
symbology and common label formats. Address: 17117 W. Nine Mile Road,
Ste 830, Southfield, MI 48075.

AIM

Automatic Identification
Manufacturers, Inc., the trade association of manufacturers of automatic
algorithm to interpret the signals into meaningful. data and provides
the interface to other devices.

alignment

The relative position of a scanner or
light source to the target of the receiving element.

all temperature adhesive

a common designation for a pressure
sensitive adhesive designed for application between room temperature and
freezing conditions. In spite of its name, it will not apply
successfully at all temperatures. Generally all temperature adhesives
are only used when application is done at a wide variety of temperatures
because they are more expensive than permanent adhesives. See also cold
temperature adhesive and freezer adhesive.

alligatoring

the appearance of an adhesive,
coating or sealer film that is cracked into large segments resembling
the hide of the alligator. When alligatoring is fine and incomplete, it
is usually called checking.

alphanumeric

The character set which contains
letters, numbers and usually other characters such as special symbols.

anchor coat

another term for barrier coat.

anchorage

the specific adhesion of a pressure
sensitive adhesive to a face material or to an anchor coat. Without
adequate adhesive anchorage, labels could be easily removed and much of
the adhesive would stay on the substrate. This can also refer to the
degree with which the ink or toner is bonded to the surface.

anhydrous

a material or chemical that is free
from moisture.

animal glue

another name for bone glue. It was
the original type of strong gum in water remoistenable adhesives. See
also strong gum and bone glue.

ANSI

The American National Standards
Institute formerly United States of America Standards

anti-foam

an additive used to reduce foaming
tendencies in adhesives, coatings and sealers applied by roller coating
equipment. Bubbles caused by foaming could cause some parts of the
surface being coated to have uncoated areas.

antioxidant

a chemical which is added in small
quantities to inhibit or retard breakdown due to oxidation.

antistatics

methods of eliminating or reducing
static electricity in plastic materials such as film stocks. this is
sometimes found necessary to obtain a uniform coating of silicone on a
polymer film backing.

anvil cut label

pressure sensitive material on which
the die cutting went through all label stock layers. An anvil cut label
would be a sheeted label.

aperture

the opening in an optical system
defined by a lens or baffle that establishes the field of view.

apparent density

the weight per unit volume of a
paper. It is frequently calculated by dividing the basis weight by the
caliper. The numerical value depends on the basis weight system used for
the paper. As long as basis weight systems are equal, a paper with a
lower number would be less dense. Density of the paper will have a big
bearing on how large diameter a 2,000 pound roll of paper will be.

application temperature

the temperature at which the label is
actually applied. Most pressure sensitive adhesives have a range of
recommended application temperatures. They will vary depending on the
type of adhesive. Most general purpose permanent adhesives are designed
for application between room temperature and about 50 degrees F. Cold
temperature adhesives may be designed for application at temperatures
between room temperature and 35 degrees F. Freezer adhesives may be
designed for application between 50 degrees F and -10 degrees F. If
application occurs outside the recommended range, the user runs the risk
of reduced performance or adhesion failure.

applicator

a device that automatically feeds and
applies pressure sensitive labels to a substrate.

aqueous

a material that contains water or is
water based. In adhesives it refers to the fact that water is used as
the adhesive carrier during coating.

artificial aging

the accelerated testing of samples to
predict their change in properties over a long time. The artificial
aging techniques can also be referred to as accelerated aging. Some
common properties that are evaluated are dimensional stability, effect
of contact with water, effect of contact with chemicals, light stability
and resistance to fatigue.

ASCII

The character set and code described
in American National Standard Code for Information

ash

an inorganic residue after burning a
piece of paper to determine the percentage of mineral content and
loading material such as filler. Ash content can have a bearing on
electrical properties of papers.

aspect ratio

The ratio of bar height to symbol
length .

autodiscrimination

the ability of bar code reading
equipment to recognize and correctly decode more than one symbology.

autodistinguish

the ability of a scanner to recognize
a selectable number of different symbologies and process the data
without operator intervention; this is a prerequisite feature of linear
bar code scanners employed in open systems.

average background reflectance

expressed as a percentage; the simple
arithmetic average of the background reflectance from at least five
different points on a sheet.

background

The area surrounding a printed
symbol, including the spaces and quiet zones.

baking

the process of drying a liquid
adhesive to solidify it.

ball-up

a specific term used to describe the
tendency of an adhesive to stick to itself. When an adhesive is rolled
between the fingers, it can become a small ball.

band label

a label that fully wraps around the
surface to which it is applied. An example would be sock band labels.
Usually there is a slight overlap and the adhesive sticks to itself.

bar

The darker element of a printed bar
code symbol.

bar code

An array of parallel rectangular bars
and spaces that together represent a single data element or

bar code character

A single group of bars and spaces
which represent an individual number, letter, punctuation mark or other
symbol.

bar code density

The number of characters which can be
represented in a linear unit of measure. Bar code density is often
expressed in characters per inch CPI.

bar code label

A label which carries a bar code and
is suitable to be affixed to an article.

bar code reader

A device used to read a bar code
symbol.

bar code symbol

see symbol.

bar height

see bar length.

bar length

The bar dimension perpendicular to
the bar width. Also called height.

bar width

The thickness of a bar measured from
the edge closest to the symbol start character to the trailing edge of
the same bar.

bar width reduction

Reduction of the nominal bar width
dimension on film masters or printing plates to compensate for printing
gain.

barrier coat

a type of coating that is a primer.
It is a coating applied to the face stock on the side opposite the
printing surface to provide increased opacity to the face stock. It can
also be used to reduce adhesive migration through the face stock and to
improve anchorage of the adhesive to the face stock.

base line

a reference line used to specify the
desired vertical position of characters printed on the same line.

basis weight

basis weight indicates how heavy
paper is for a standard size. There are a number of different basis
weight systems. Most pressure sensitive label face stocks use a book
basis weight. For example, 500 sheets 25 x 38 of a 60# paper will weight
60#. Also the weight in pounds of a ream of paper cut to a given size.
There are a number of different basis weight systems. The most common
are book 25 x 38 * 500, bond 17 x 22 * 500 and kraft 24 x 36 * 500. Most
face stocks are on book basis. Bonds and other products for the forms
industry is on a bond basis. Release liners and some industrial products
are on a kraft basis. Some care is important when quoting to make sure
that you are asking for the correct weight. 20# on a bond basis is about
equivalent to a 50# on a book basis.

BCD

Binary Coded Decimal; see Decimal,
Binary Coded.

bi-directional

a bar code symbol capable of being
read successfully independent of scanning direction.

bi-directional read

see Bi-directional.

binary

the number system that uses only 1’s
and 0’s.

binder

an adhesive substance used to create
adhesion between the adhesive components or between and adhesive and the
surface to which it is coated.

bit

An abbreviation for binary digit. A
single element 0 or 1 in a binary number.

bleaching

the chemical process that makes paper
lighter in color or higher in brightness.

bleed

printing that goes all the way to the
edge of the finished label. There are no blank edges.

bleeding

the migration of plasticizers from
the adhesive film into the facestock or substrate to which it has been
applied.

blister

a surface irregularity in an adhesive
or coating film consisting of a small gas or liquid pocket between the
film and the base surface. Blisters can be caused by insufficient
adhesive coating, inadequate curing, entrapped air, or improper cleaning
of the surface.

blocking

adhesion between the sheets or plies
of rolls of pressure sensitive labels usually due to adhesive cold flow,
improper drying of inks or improper drying and curing of coatings.
Blocking can also occur with heat or water sensitive papers. If heat
sensitive papers are subjected to excessive heat, the adhesive will
activate. One layer will stick to the next. If water sensitive adhesives
have too much moisture applied prematurely, they also can block. There
are recommendations for storage and processing of both products to
reduce blocking.

bloom

a side effect in heat sensitive
papers which causes a powder used in production to leach to the surface.
During coating, they are dried chemically with a powder. We remove
excessive powder before the product ships, but the powder tends to come
out or bloom during aging. When the dust blooms, the powder transfers to
the printing surface which can make clean printing difficult.

bond basis weight

this measures how heavy 500 sheets 17
x 22 would be. A common weight is 20#. A 20# paper on this system will
weigh the same as a 50# paper figured on the book basis weight system.

bond paper

a type of paper frequently used for
stationery and business forms.

bonding strength

the resistance of a coated or
uncoated paper to picking or lifting of its surface fibers during
printing.

bone glue

another name for animal glue. It was
extracted from bones by cooking with steam under pressure. Strong gum
was originally an animal glue or bone glue, but now adhesion properties
are enhanced chemically. See also animal glue and strong gum.

book basis weight

this measures how heavy 500 sheets 25
x 38 would be.

BOPP

acronym for biaxually oriented
polypropylene.

BPI

Bits per inch. The linear density of
encoded information number of characters encoded per linear inch of the
bar code symbol.

breaker

equipment used for breaking up
conventional water sensitive glues to promote flatness. The equipment
makes small cracks in the adhesive to allow it to expand and contract
without causing excessive curl. It would be similar to the effect caused
by bending paper across the sharp edge of a desk while under tension.

breaking

the process accomplished on the
breaker. See breaker.

bright laminated foil

this is a pressure sensitive face
stock that is paper laminated foil with a very shiny appearance. It is
available in both silver and gold colors. See also paper laminated foil.

brightness

White papers vary in degree of visual
brightness. Measurement is on a numerical scale in which higher numbers
indicate a brighter sheet of paper. This should not be confused with the
color of the paper. White colors can vary from cream white to a blue
white color. Usually blue white color is associated with brightness, but
that is not always the case. The Martin Sweets Reflection Diano Meter is
one piece of equipment used to measure brightness of paper.

brittleness

the property of a material which
causes it to break or fail when deformed by bending. This is an
important property for form companies that manufacture fan folded
product. If the perforations at the fan fold were too brittle, the
perforation would break. There is a relationship between moisture
content of paper and the degree of brittleness. The dryer the paper, the
more brittle it will be. To some extent form manufacturers vary the
mechanical size of the perforation to try and achieve equal performance
of finished product when brittleness varies.

broke

a paper making term that refers to
paper trimmings or damaged paper from the machine or finishing rooms. It
is returned to the beaters for reprocessing into salable paper.

Brookfield Viscosimeter

an instrument for measuring the
viscosity of formulated adhesives under standard temperature conditions.

bulk

the thickness of a paper or relative
thickness according to the substance weight of the paper. A bulky sheet
refers to one lacking compactness which will result in a lighter weight
for the same thickness. See also apparent density.

bursting strength

indicates the amount of pressure
needed to burst a given area of the paper. It is a measure of strength
of the paper. Measured numerically, higher numbers indicate stronger
paper. The Perkins Mullen tester is used for testing. Sometimes the test
is referred to as the Mullen test.

butt cut label

a knife cut label in which the knife
cut is made through the face stock, across the full width of the label.
Most uses are for hand application of the labels.

C1S

an abbreviation for coated one side.
It usually refers to clay coated papers that are only coated on the
print side. Since adhesives cover the other side, many clay coated
papers we use are C1S. If product was C2S, it would be clay coated on
both sides. Typical uses for this type of product would be magazines and
brochures.

calendar

a series of horizontal steel rolls at
the dry end of the paper machine which increase the paper’s smoothness,
gloss and apparent density.

caliper

a measure of thickness. Usually
caliper is referred to in mil thickness. Each mil is 1/1000. Normally
heavier caliper papers will be stiffer. Caliper of roll PS release
liners is particularly important because dies are made to cut to a
specific depth. If the die cuts too deeply, labels will not be able to
be removed from the liner. If it does not cut deeply enough, stripping
will be difficult. Caliper can also be the equipment that determines the
thickness.

cambric

a cloth tape used in the book binding
industry. Cambric is heavier and stronger than holland, but not as
strong as gusset.

carbonless paper

a paper specially coated to achieve
write-through without use of carbon interleaves or carbon coating.
Transfer type carbonless paper requires contact of two surfaces for
image formation. Self-contained develops its own image without need of
contact of two surfaces.

carload

another term for a truck load
quantity. In water and heat sensitive products it is determined by
weight — 40,000 lbs. In roll pressure sensitive it is determined by
square inches shipped — usually 140 MMSI.

carrier

another term for release liner on
pressure sensitive papers.

cast coated paper

these are created by bringing the
paper in contact with chromium drums. Print surface is exceptionally
smooth. Cast coated papers have the highest gloss levels of any clay
coated paper. KromeKote is an example of a cast coated paper.

cast film

plastic sheeting manufactured by the
casting process, as opposed to the extruded process.

cast vinyl

vinyl sheeting manufactured by
coating a liquid vinyl acetate or similar ester onto a casting paper and
curing in a heated oven.

CB

a designation for coated back. This
term is most frequently used on carbonless paper to designate a
carbonless coating that is only on the bottom side of the paper. CB
carbonless is used over another sheet that has a CF coated front
coating. Seldom CB carbonless would be used as a label. Adhesives will
act as a barrier so that the paper will not image properly. See also
carbonless paper, NCR Paper(tm), self-contained carbonless and CF.

CCD

Charge Coupled Device; Used in
scanners to sense the light and dark areas of a symbol. A multiple
number of light sensitive areas can be arranged linearly for a
1-dimensional bar code or in a two- dimensional array for 2-dimensional
bar codes.

CD

this stands for cross machine
direction of the paper. In rolls it would be the width of the roll. In
sheets it would be the short grain direction of the sheet.

cellophane

a transparent film made of
regenerated cellulose. It is greaseproof and with suitable coatings can
be made moisture proof and heat sealable. It is normally measured by
thickness. Cellophane is most commonly a substrate rather than a label
face stock.

cellulose fiber

fibrous material remaining after the
non-fibrous components of weed have been removed by pulping and
bleaching operations.

centerline

the vertical axis around which
character elements are located for letters, numerals, or symbols.

centigrade

a scale of temperature which 0
represents freezing temperature of water and 100 represents the boiling
point of water. Centigrade temperatures are usually designated 10。.
Conversion from centigrade to Fahrenheit would be to multiply centigrade
by 1.8 and add 32 to the result. The formula would be centigrade * 1.8 +
32 = Fahrenheit.

centipoise

one hundredth of a pose. It is a
measure of viscosity of a fluid and is the main Bureau of Standards
measurement for viscosity. See also viscosity.

CF

a designation for coated front. This
term is most frequently used on carbonless paper to designate a
carbonless coating that is only on the top side of the paper. CF
carbonless is used under another sheet that has a CB coated back
coating. Frequently CF carbonless would be used as a label. It is
usually located as the bottom part of a multi-part form. See also
carbonless paper, NCR Paper(tm), self-contained carbonless and CB .

CFB

a carbonless paper with coating on
both front and back. The CF side would come in contact with another
carbonless sheet that was CB coated. The B side would come in contact
with another carbonless sheet that was CF coated. See also carbonless
paper, CF and CB.

chalking

the deterioration of a coating that
causes formation of a loose, chalk-like powder on the film surface.

character

1. A single group of bars and spaces
which represent an individual number, letter, punctuation mark or other
symbol. 2. A graphic shape representing a letter, numeral or symbol. 3.
A letter, digit, or other symbol that is used as part of the
organization, control or representation of data.

character alignment

The vertical or horizontal position
of characters with respect to a given reference line.

character set

those characters available for
encodation in a particular bar code symbology.

check character

a character included within a symbol
whose value is used for the purpose of performing a mathematical check
to ensure the accuracy of the read.

checking / crazing

the presence of hair-line cracks in a
coating or film.

check digit

see Check Character.

chemical curing

the process of setting or curing of
an adhesive brought about by the addition of a catalyst or accelerator.

chemical resistance

the resistance of a pressure
sensitive label to the deteriorating effects resulting from exposure to
chemicals under specified conditions.

chill roller

a roller kept at a cold temperature.
It is used to cool label constructions on which adhesives have been
applied at high temperatures. Hot melt pressure sensitive coaters
frequently have chill rollers to cool the adhesive.

clarity

degree of clearness in a film..

Clark

equipment used to measure the
stiffness of paper. See also stiffness.

clay coating

a print coating that provides a very
smooth surface. Print quality is higher with clay coated papers than
they would be with uncoated papers. Examples of clay coated papers are
Semigloss, KromeKote, C1S Litho, C1S Tag, etc.

clayfilled

a process in which cloth is filled
with clay so that it can be adhesive coated. It is necessary so that the
adhesive will not come out the other side.

clear area

see quiet zone.

clear coat

a coating that protects the printing
and the surface of a pressure sensitive label from abrasion, sunlight,
chemicals, moisture, or a combination of these.clamp mark

co-extrusions

film produced by more than one
extruder through a common die. films have been made with as many as 13
layers.

co-polymer

two or more mixed monomers which,
when polymerized, yield a complex product having properties different
from either simple polymer alone.cockling

coated paper

could have one of two meanings. It
could refer to adhesive coating done on paper. It could also refer to
clay print coatings done by the paper mill to enhance printing
characteristics. The meaning would be determined by the context in which
it is used. See also uncoated paper.

coating weight

the weight of coating per unit area
of a substrate. this is preferably expressed as grams per 100 square
inches. Not all adhesive coaters use the same measuement for coat weight

COD

an abbreviation for cash on delivery.
We are not equipped to handle COD shipments. We can either sell an
account on open credit or on a C.W.O. basis.

Codabar

2 of 7 Code, Code 27 . A numbers-only
bar code consisting of seven modules, two of which are wide. See AIM
X5-3 USS-Codabar for specifications.

code

A set of unambiguous rules specifying
the way in which data may be represented. Numbers and letters used to
represent information see Number System.

Code 128

A full alphanumeric bar code capable
of encoding all 128 ASCII characters. See AIM X5-4 USS- 128 for
specifications.

Code 16K

See stacked codes. This symbol is a
stack of from 2 to 16 rows.

Code 39

3 of 9 Code; A full alphanumeric bar
code consisting of nine modules, three of which are wide.

Code 49

see stacked codes. This symbol is a
stack of from 2 to 8 rows. Each row encodes row count information plus
data characters.

Code 93

a full alphanumeric bar code capable
of encoding all 128 ASCII characters. See AIM X5-5 USS- 128 for
specifications.

code reader

a device that examines a printed
spatial pattern and decodes the encoded data.

coefficient of expansion

the fractional change in length of a
material for a unit change in temperature.

cohesive strength

the amount of internal strength of
the adhesive. Cohesive strength must be greater than the specific
adhesion in order to prevent the adhesive from splitting when the label
is removed from a surface. Cohesive strength is tested by vertically
bonding a label sample to a test bar. A weight is then attached to the
sample and the amount of time that elapses before the sample pulls free
indicates the amount of sheer strength.

cold flow

another term for adhesive ooze. It
represents the degree to which the adhesive continues to flow under
normal conditions. Cold flow can increase with application of both heat
and pressure.

cold glue

a glue that is used in liquid form.
It would be the opposite of a hot melt adhesive, or one that needs to be
heated when it is used.

cold temperature adhesive

a pressure sensitive adhesive
designed for application in refrigerator conditions to a cold substrate.
Most cold temperature adhesives will not work in true freezer
conditions.

collating

a means of putting various papers in
their proper order. This process is used in the form industry to attach
several layers of a multi part form together. Also it would be used
during the manufacture of books to insure that the pages are in the
proper order.

color

both white and colored papers can be
described in terms of color. White varies from blue to cream and pink.
Colored papers are dyed to a number of hues.

color fastness

the permanence of a color during
exposure to light. Generally this is a more important characteristic for
inks than adhesives unless the adhesives are applied to a transparent
face stock. Some rubber based adhesives tend to yellow with age.

compatibility

ability of two or more substances to
mix or blend without separation.

compression mold

a type of plastic mold which forms
the finished shape by heat and the pressure of closing the mold.

compression score

a score used in the sheet pressure
sensitive industry to enable easy removal of two pieces of release liner
with little concern about label size. The user bends back the liner at
point of the compression score and the liner breaks into two pieces. The
pieces are removed by the consumer. This type of score allows the
printer to stock one size of paper for many different label jobs.

condensation

the precipitation of ambient moisture
on substrates. Condensation on substrates can adversely affect adhesion
because the adhesive sticks to the water, not the intended surface. This
can be a common problem in the processed meat industry where application
is done at very high humidity and 45 degrees F temperatures.
Condensation can also pose problems for water sensitive adhesives. If
the water drops onto the adhesive prematurely, it could cause blocking.

conditioning

the process of subjecting material to
the specific temperature and humidity conditions that will be used in
production. Sheet fed printers condition material before printing to
make sure that it is dimensionally stable and that it does not curl
excessively. The amount of time it takes for the product to acclimate
will depend on the volume of material and the temperature and humidity
difference. The larger volume and the greater the difference, the longer
acclimation will take. This would be the opposite of putting sheet goods
on a press as soon as they arrived in a cold press during the winter.

CONEG

regulations controling lack of heavy
metal content in materials

conformability

the ability of a pressure sensitive
material to yield to the contours of a surface.

construction

a multi-layer laminate of webstocks.
usually consisting of a facestock, an adhesive layer, and a siliconized
backing.

consumer unit

in the UPC standard, a specific
package quantity of a specific product offered by a specific
manufacturer.

continuous code

a bar code symbol where all spaces
within the symbol are parts of characters, e.g.,

contrast

the difference in reflectance between
the black and white or bar and space areas of a symbol.

conventional gum

a water sensitive adhesive that has a
shiny finish. It is less dimensionally stable than dry gum, but less
expensive.

core

the base product on which rolls are
wound.

core plug

a protective device placed on exposed
ends of cores to help prevent the core from crushing during transit.

corona treatment

an electrical discharge which is used
to raise the critical surface tension of substrates to facilitate good
wet-out of applied materials or coatings.

cover-up

a label that has an opaque adhesive
used to cover other printing. It is more opaque than standard grades to
minimize show through of what is below the label. These are frequently
used to revise product information on previously printed boxes or
labels. They are also used to correct mistakes.

CPI

Characters Per Inch see Bar Code
Density.

creep

the movement of a pressure sensitive
adhesive on a surface due to its low cohesive strength.

cross direction

the direction at right angles to the
machine direction in the plane of a sheet of paper (or web).

cross perforation

a perforation cut at right angles to
the web direction on a form. They usually designate the edge of the
form.

CSA

Canadian Standards Association.
Canadian association similar to Underwriters Laboratories.

cupping

a slight u-shaped deformation of tape
or a roll at right angles to the length which usually appears after
unwind tension is relaxed.

cure

a change in the properties of an
adhesive by chemical reaction. Curing can include condensation,
polymerization, or vulcanization. Usually it is accomplished by the
application of heat and catalysts or heat alone.

curing temperature

the temperature at which an adhesive
or ink is subjected to curing.

curing time

the time required to effect a cure or
vulcanization.

CWO

an abbreviation for cash with order.
When we need to make a C.W.O. shipment, we can only accept a certified
check, money order or a wire transfer. We will not normally begin
manufacturing any product until payment is received.

CWT

an abbreviation for hundred weight.
It indicates that the material weighs 100 lbs. It is the most common
unit of pricing on products sold to the business forms industry. A price
of $150/CWT would mean that 100 pounds would cost $150.

dandy pick

a defect in paper caused by the dandy
roll picking up fibers from the paper or otherwise disturbing the sheet
formation to leave thin spots or other imperfections.

dandy roll

a paper machine part that is a
skeleton cylinder covered with a woven wire cloth. This is one method of
applying watermarks to paper while it is wet.

data content codes

See data identifier

data Identifier

a specified character or string of
characters that defines the general category or specific use of the data
that follows.

data Integrity 2D symbols

is provided in conventional, linear
bar codes, by encodation schemes which include unique start and stop
codes, self checking parity within each character, and check digits
which apply to the total message. In these symbols, the height of the
bars may be expanded to provide for redundant scan paths and allowance
for diagonal scanning. Symbols damaged in a small area may retain their
integrity because of this redundancy. Among the prominent 2-D
symbologies, the data characters are composed of square or near-square
elements which do not provide for redundant or diagonal scan paths. This
fundamental difference provides for the enormous gain in data density
but dictates that an error detection and an error correction system have
been instituted in addition to the character and message orientation and
parity checking schemes.

decimal, binary coded BCD

a numbering system using base 2 that
represents each decimal digit by four binary bits, with the place values
equal to 8, 4, 2, and 1, reading from left to right.

deckle

a name for straps on the wet end of a
paper machine. Usually, however, in the pressure sensitive part of the
business it refers to roll widths available from a paper mill.

decoder

the electronic package which receives
the signals from the scanning function.

delamination

the partial or complete separation of
a material into layers in a direction approximately parallel to the
surface.

delayed action adhesive

a heat sensitive adhesive than can be
heated and later applied with pressure. The adhesive stays tacky for
long enough for label application. It is the opposite type of heat
sensitive than instantaneous.

density

the mass or weight per volumetric
measure of a material. Also describes the relative amount of memory
contained in a radio frequency identification tag. see Bar code density.

Depth of Field

the distance between the maximum and
minimum plane in which a code reader is capable of reading symbols.

dextrine

any of various soluble
polysaccharides obtained from starch by the application of heat or acids
and used mainly as adhesives and thickening agents. In conventional gum,
this is a type of adhesive that is primarily vegetable in basis.

die cut

the line of severance between a
pressure sensitive label and its matrix or adjoining label made by the
cutting edge of a die.

die cut label

a pressure sensitive label mounted on
a release liner from which the matrix has been removed.

die gap

the distance between the metal faces
forming the die opening.

dielectric

a nonconductor of electricity.

dielectric paper

a paper free of any metallic element
or other materials which might conduct electricity. It is a dense well
formed, chemically pure paper used as an insulating material in
electrical equipment to prevent the flow of electrical charges.

dielectric strength

the voltage which a dielectric paper
can withstand without allowing passage of the current through it.

Diffuse Reflection

the component of reflected light
which emanates in all directions from the reflecting surface.

dimensional stability

the property of a material which
relates to the consistency of its dimensions. Paper grows as it picks up
moisture and shrinks as it gives up moisture. Different grades can vary
in how much they grow and shrink.

direct thermal

a type of non impact printing that
uses heat to darken printed images. There is a thermal coating that
darkens with application of heat. Advantages of this printing method are
high resolution, quiet printing and inexpensive printers. The main
disadvantage is that the images are not permanent. They tend to fade
with time and can darken when contacted with certain liquids. Direct
thermal paper is more expensive than other types of white paper.

dirt

Foreign matter in the paper can
provide appearance of specks. This can detract from the print job and
interfere with automatic reading devises such as OCR scanners.

discrete code

a bar code or symbol where the spaces
between characters inter-character gap are not part of the code, e.g.,
USS-39.

dot matrix

a system of printing where individual
dots are printed in matrix 5×7, 7×9, etc. forming bars, alphanumeric
characters and simple graphics.

dot size

Ink Jet Dot Matrix Thermal

dots per inch

a term to measure resolution of
electronic data printers. Frequently the abbreviation of DPI is used.
Electronic data printers form images by printing a series of dots on a
material. The higher the dots per inch, the higher the resolution will
be. Information printed at high DPI look natural. The eye can not see
the dots. Resolution DPI has a large bearing on the ability of scanners
to read bar codes. Bar code readers look for the space between the
lines. When low DPI resolutions are used, the space will not be the
right size. The bar code will not scan.

DPI

an abbreviation for dots per inch.

draw

the displacement of the cut by the
thickness of the cutting blade during the trimming operation. This is a
common cause of inaccurately cut paper. It can also be a term for the
tension applied to the paper between sections of a paper machine.

dry bone glue

a glue or adhesive made from bones
previously cooked for tallow and dried.

dry gum

a water sensitive adhesive that has a
dull finish. It is more dimensionally stable than conventional gum. See
also water sensitive.

dry seal adhesive

another term for cohesive adhesive.
It is an adhesive that will not stick to other things than the adhesive
itself.

DSSG

Distribution Symbology Study Group.

dull laminated foil

this is a pressure sensitive face
stock that is paper laminated foil with a matte appearance. It is
available in both silver and gold colors. See also paper laminated foil.

Duraform(r)

a Kimberly-Clark trade name for latex
impregnated papers. See latex impregnating.

dyne level

dyne is a measurement of surface
tension or energy. The level is the actual reading of the critical
surface tension. Low dyne levels indicate a low surface energy which can
contribute to poor ink adhesion.

EAN

European Article Numbering System,
the international standard bar code for retail food packages.

EAN-13

a superset of UPC, containing the
same number of bars as UPC Version A, but encoding an additional digit
which, along with the 12th digit, identifies a country code.

edge curl/lift

the peeling back or lifting of the
outer edge of a label which has been applied to a surface.

Edge Roughness

Irregularities in the printing of bar
code elements, resulting in a non-uniform edge, and resulting in edge
errors.

EDI

Electronic Data Interchange; a method
by which data is electronically transmitted from one point to another.

EDP

an abbreviation for electronic data
processing. It commonly is a name applied to pressure sensitive labels
that are used on impact computer printers.

EF

an abbreviation for English finish.
See English finish.

elastic limit

This is the maximum stress or
distorting force an adhesive can withstand and still return to its
original size after the force is removed. If it does not return to its
original size, the elastic limit has been exceeded.

elastic memory

the tendency of some film materials
to return to their original dimensions after being elongated or
distorted

elasticity

the extensible property of an
adhesive to contract and expand in such a manner as to overcome the
differential contraction and expansion rates that the substrate may
contain.

electrostatic

a method of printing utilizing a
special electrostatic paper or charged drum, both of which attract toner
to the charged area.

element

a single bar or space.

Element Size-2D Symbol

equates to the X Dimension of a
linear bar code, and indirectly to the optical

Elmendorf

This is testing equipment to
determine tear strength of paper. It uses a falling pendulum. See also
tear.

elongation

the distance a material will stretch
lengthwise before breaking, expressed as a percentage of its original
length.

emboss

a design on a surface causing the
letters, figures or patterns to be raised by pressure of dies, rollers
and printing presses.

emulsion

a dispersion of fine particles of a
liquid in another liquid normally incompatible with it. The term
emulsion is frequently misapplied to dispersions.

enameled paper

a coated paper with a shiny finish.
Sometimes it is referred to as just enamel.

encapsulation

the enclosure of adhesive particles
with a protective film which prevents activation until pressure is
applied. An example is carbonless paper. This is normally white, but
turns dark in areas in which pressure is applied.

English Finish

a paper finish between machine finish
and super calendered in degree of smoothness.

engraved die

a type of die used on roll presses
that combines die and cylinder into one piece. This is the most common
type of die used on narrow web pressure sensitive presses. The main
advantage it offers compared to magnetic dies is long life span. The die
can be re-sharpened several times before the end of its life cycle. This
type of die also does not have circumference limitations that occur with
magnetic dies. The main disadvantage compared to magnetic dies is higher
cost. Also, engraved dies are very heavy in larger sizes. They are more
difficult to transport, store and install into the press.

expansion

the change in dimensions of a sheet
of paper due to absorption of moisture. Paper expands to a greater
extent across the grain than with the grain.

extrude

forcing a liquid through a measured
orifice. The amount of liquid forced though will depend on the size of
the opening.

face cut label

a die cut label from which the matrix
has not been removed.

face stock

the part of the pressure sensitive
construction that is printed. It ends up being most of what a user sees
as a label. In gummed paper, frequently this layer is called the base
material.

FACT

Federation of Automated Coding
Technology

fading

the gradual decrease in brilliance of
color frequently applied to the change in color produced by light.

fadometer

a mechanical device which measures
the effect of light upon colored surfaces.

fanning

a process of manually separating the
edges of sheet stock. It is a common recommended procedure when printing
sheet pressure sensitive. The goal is that the edges of sheets will not
stick together when they feed into a press.

FDA 21 CFR 175.105

this number represents the FDA
regulation governing materials acceptable for indirect food contact.
Adhesives that meet this regulation have components in compliance and
acceptable for labeling of food items when there is a functional barrier
between the adhesive and the food. A functional barrier would be
packaging for the food.

FDA 21 CFR 175.125

this number represents the FDA
regulation governing materials acceptable for direct food contact.
Adhesives that meet this regulation have components in compliance and
acceptable for being applied directly to the food item. For example
labels that need to be applied to fruits and vegetables that have edible
skins need to be in compliance with this regulation.

felt side

the side of paper that did not come
in contact with wire during the paper making process. Generally it is
more smooth than the wire side. See also wire side.

festoon

a devise used by roofing
manufacturers that allows continuous production while they briefly stop
the web of felt to splice a new roll. It can also refer to a method of
air drying coated paper by hanging it in long loops from cross rods in
the drying chamber.

fibre

the strands of wood, cotton or jute
that make up the paper. This can also be spelled fiber.

fibre tear

the rupture of paper or cloth fibres
during the separation of the adhesive from the substrate. This can also
be spelled fiber tear. If corrugated is the substrate, a label would
exhibit fibre tear when small pieces of the brown box come up with the
label during attempted removal. Against other non fibrous substrates,
fibre tear would occur when parts of the label destruct and are left on
the substrate during attempts to remove the label This represents a
higher bond to the surface than would adhesion without fibre tear. It is
still possible for the label to provide good enough adhesion that it
will not flag or fall off without exhibiting fibre tear. Labels leaving
fibre tear would not have a tendency to either fall off or flag.

fill

the maximum width of paper that can
be made on a paper machine.

film

a transparent or opaque material used
for face and liner material manufactured from synthetic molecular weight
polymers.

ilm liner

a release liner that uses a film as a
base rather than paper. Film liners offer better caliper control than
paper. They are more forgiving of too deep die cutting and do not tend
to break as frequently as paper liners when die cutting extends through
the silicone release layer. They also provide greater strength than
paper liners. Frequently they find use when end customers are concerned
about avoiding liner breaks. Film liners are more expensive than paper
liners.

film master

a photographic film representation of
a specific symbol from which a printing plate is produced.

FIM

Facing Identification Mark, used on
reply mail to identify the front of the envelope during presorting or
bulk mail.

fine paper

papers primarily intended for
printing and writing applications. It is the opposite of coarse paper in
smoothness of printing paper. Sometimes, merchants that specialize in
printings grades are called fine paper merchants. See also coarse paper.

finish

the surface property of a paper sheet
determined by its surface contour and gloss.

First Read Rate

the ratio of the number of
successful. reads to the number of attempts.

fish eyes

round or eye shaped deformations in a
coating on the surface of a substrate.

fixed beam bar code reader

a scanning device where scanning
motion is achieved by moving the object relative to the reader; as
opposed to Moving Beam Reader.

flag

a marker inserted into rolls or a
stack of sheets to designate splices, defects, etc. It is usually a
brightly colored piece of paper.

flame treatment

a method of changing the surface
characteristics of polymeric materials to promote good wetting and
adhesion of applied liquid materials.

flexibility

a property of face stocks which is
measured under specified conditions to indicate how readily they will
conform to curved surfaces. Generally the heavier and thicker a material
is, the less flexible it will be. Latex grades tend to offer greater
flexibility than plain papers of the same basis weight.

flow out

the ability of an adhesive to wet out
or spread after application.

fluorescent paper

a paper coated with a pigment which
not only reflects a visible wavelength, but is activated by most of the
remaining absorbed light to re-emit it as a color of longer wavelength
which results in reinforcement of the reflected color. They almost seem
to glow.

fluorocarbon films

a film with very high and low
temperature limits, excellent electrical characteristics, and very
slippery, non-sticking surface. example dupont’s teflon.

fluting

the distortion of the edge of a roll
due to the fact that it is no longer forming a circle.

flying splice

an operation of splicing a new roll
on production equipment without stopping the production equipment. This
is also used in the roofing industry to join new rolls of felt. See
festoon.

foil

see ribbon .

foil paper laminate

the formal term for foil stocked in
the pressure sensitive industry. It is a laminate of aluminum foil and
paper. The aluminum gives the face stock a metallic appearance, while
the paper adds stiffness and strength.

fold

Paper is tested for fold strength by
the forms industry with a MIT or Schopper Tester. Both determine the
amount of double folds required to rupture a paper sample under constant
tension. Results are measured in both MD and CD.

folio

a trade term in sheets for a 17 x 22
size.

font

a specific size and style of
printer’s type.

formation

a property of paper which is
determined by the degree of uniformity of distribution of the solid
components of the sheet with reference to the fibers.

formed font impact

a printing method for labels
consisting of a rotating drum etched with raised bars and characters. A
one-time ribbon and the label move between the drum and a micro
controlled hammer.

four-color process

printing with yellow, magenta, and
cyan color inks plus black, using screens to create all other colors.

fourdrinier

usually a reference to the whole
paper machine. Its origins were based on the wet part of the paper
machine originally designed by Henry and Sealy Fourdrinier.

FPM

an abbreviation for feet per minute.
It is a frequently used term to quantify press processing speeds.

FPRR First Pass Read Rate

see First Read Rate

free sheet

paper made of pulp which has been
subjected to the very minimum of beating or hydration. A free sheet has
a low apparent density and a high rate of absorption.

freezer adhesive

a type of pressure sensitive adhesive
designed for application at below freezing temperatures. Most freezer
adhesives will work in refrigerator conditions, but will not work well
at room temperatures. Most will act as a very week removable when
applied at room temperature. See also cold temperature adhesive and all
temperature adhesive.

G.E. Brightness Tester

test equipment used to test
brightness of paper. It is currently called the Martin Sweets Reflection
Diano Meter. See also brightness.

gauge

a unit of measure usually the
thickness or diameter of a material expressed by a number.

General Trade Items

Items that are not specifically made
for one customer.

glassine

a nearly transparent, resilient
glazed paper resistant to the passage of air and grease.

gloss

the property of a surface which
causes it to reflect light. The reflectance causes the surface to appear
shiny.

gloss

characteristic of the surface which
causes it to reflect light at a given angle.

grade

a term applied to a paper which is
ranked on basis of its use, appearance, manufacturing history, raw
materials or performance.

grain

the machine direction of paper. On a
roll, it would be the length of the roll. This would be opposite of
cross direction.

grain direction

Cellulose fibers are shaped like
logs. When they form a sheet of paper, more fibers will usually lie in
one direction than the other. Grain long is the direction that has more
fibers and the length of the logs. Grain short is the direction that has
less fibers. Extra stiffness is associated with the grain long
direction. On rolls, grain long is the length of the roll. Generally on
sheets, grain direction is indicated by second dimension shown. For
example, 25 x 20 would be considered a grain short sheet whereas 20 x 25
would be considered grain long. Also the direction taken by a majority
of the fibers in any sheet of paper. It is the same as machine direction
MD and the opposite of cross direction CD. Paper will usually be more
stiff in the grain direction. Usually you can determine grain direction
by positioning the edge of paper over the end of a desk so that about
half of the paper is unsupported. The grain direction will bend less
when unsupported.

grain long

See grain direction.

grain short

See grain direction

gravure printing

a printing process employing minute
engraved wells. generally, deeply etched wells carry more ink than a
raised surface, hence print darker values. shallow wells print light
values. a doctor blade wipes excess ink from the cylindrical printing
surface.

guard bars

the bars which are at both ends and
center of a UPC and EAN symbol. They provide reference points for
scanning.

guillotine

equipment for trimming paper with a
downward cutting action similar in operation to the guillotine used in
France.

gummed paper

paper with a layer of remoistening
adhesive.

gummed tape

tape with a layer of remoistening
adhesive. This type of tape is frequently used for sealing boxes.

Gurley Densometer

a tester that determines porosity by
forcing air through the paper sample and measuring it in time. It
measures the time in seconds for 100 ml of air. The higher the number,
the denser the paper. See also Sheffield Porosity Tester and stiffness.

gusset

a heavy weight cloth tape used in the
bookbinding industry. Gusset is the heaviest and strongest grade we
offer for bookbinding applications.

halo

an undesirable, peripheral outline of
a printed image or outline of adhesive around the edge of an applied
pressure sensitive label.

hand laser gun

see Laser Scanner .

hand-held scanner

see Wand Scanner.

hardness

the relative resistance of a metal or
other material to denting, scratching, or bending. Within the flexo
industry, this term mainly relates to how hard dies are. Hardness is
measured in Rockwell. The degree of hardness of a die varies based on
the material that will be cut.

hardwood

lumber from deciduous trees or ones
that lose their leaves in winter. It is not necessarily an indication of
how hard the wood is. Some hardwoods are soft and easily worked.

He-Ne

common name for helium neon laser.

heat curing adhesives

adhesives that require a definite
period of time above room temperature to develop full bond strength. The
tern is usually applied to adhesives that require 180 degrees F and
higher temperatures to affect a cure.

heat resistance

the property of a material which
inhibits the occurrence of physical or chemical charges caused by
exposure to high temperatures.

heat seal

this refers to the joining of two
materials by application of heat and pressure. Some plastic bags are
heat sealed to form a closure.

Helium Neon Laser

A type of laser commonly used in bar
code scanners. It emits coherent red light at a wavelength of 633 nm.

HIBC

Health Industry Bar Code. The
symbology and label format for use by the health care industry. Address:
5110 N 40th Street, Suite 120, Phoenix AZ 85018.

High Gloss

a roll and sheet pressure sensitive
face stock that is a cast coated paper. Technicote High Gloss is
Champion KromeKote. See cast coated paper.

high temperature adhesive

an adhesive that will enable a
pressure sensitive label to adhere or stick well when applied to a hot
substrate.

holding power

the ability of an adhesive to resist
the static forces applied in the same plane as the backing. It is
usually expressed in time required for a given weight to cause a given
amount of label stock or tape to come loose from a vertical panel. This
is another term for shear adhesion.

holland

a cloth that is pyroxylin coated. It
is used as a binding tape and for hinges. Holland is stronger than
Mold-On but not as strong as cambric or gusset.

hologram

the pattern on a photosensitive
material or embossed into a polymeric film structure resulting from an
interference pattern created by a laser light striking an object, then
merging with a reference beam of the same light.

horizontal bar code

A bar code or symbol presented in
such a manner that its overall length dimension is parallel to the
horizon. The bars are presented in an array which look like a picket
fence.

hot melt

a pressure sensitive adhesive applied
to the backing in a hot molten form which cools to form a conventional
pressure sensitive adhesive. All of what is applied is adhesive — there
is no carrier.

hot melt coating

application of a coating material in
liquid form by the use of applied heat to melt the constituents to a
sufficiently low viscosity for coating.

human-readable

the interpretation of bar code data,
often printed immediately below the bar code, which is readable to
humans.

hygrometer

a device which measures relative
humidity of air. They vary in complexity. Simple ones are sling
hygrometers. They have two thermometers. One has wet cloth over the tip.
Numbers from each are aligned on a slide rule to obtain the relative
humidity. More sophisticated ones have a digital read out and work
automatically.

hygroscopic

the ability of an adhesive film to
absorb and retain moisture. Some water sensitive adhesives could be
activated by extremely high relative humidities. This would cause
blocking. Some special adhesives are designed to reduce this problem
when labels are used in tropical climates.

ID

abbreviation for inside diameter. It
is the usual designation for core sizes because the ID determines what
size shaft the core will fit.

ILD

Infrared Laser Diode

imaging liner

the mid liner in some piggyback
constructions will leave an image after impact printing. The image left
behind leaves a record of variable information on the label that was
applied to something else. Imaging liners are carbonless paper coated
with a release coating.

IML

acronym for in-mold labeling.

Impact Printing

any printing system where a micro
processor controlled hammer impacts against a ribbon and a substrate.

impregnate

to provide liquid penetration into a
porous or fibrous material. Latex grades in Technicote’s pressure
sensitive line are latex impregnated.

imprinting

a technique in which changeable copy
is applied to blank or previously printed labels, tags, etc. Originally
it was a term used mainly in the marking machine industry to refer to
printing by stencils or rubber mat printing. It can also refer to
computer printing or typing of variable information. This most common
information imprinted would be ship to information on labels or product
identification. The ability to imprint variable information allows the
consumer to use the same labels for many different products and
customers. More recently variable information is imprinted with non
impact methods. Some types are direct thermal, laser and thermal
transfer.

industrial paper

a general term indicating papers
which are manufactured for industrial uses such as impregnating,
insulating, packaging as opposed to grades mainly used for writing and
printing.

infra-red

part of the electromagnetic spectrum
between the visible light range and the radar range. Radiant heat is in
this range.

initial tack

the initial adhesion an adhesive
offers at time of application. It needs to be sticky enough to hold the
label to the substrate. The degree of initial tack that is desirable
depends on the application. Adhesion to some difficult surfaces will not
happen unless the adhesive offers high initial tack. On the other hand,
some applications need an adhesive with low initial tack so that it can
be repositionable. Generally rubber based adhesives and tactified
acrylic adhesives offer high initial tack.

Ink Jet

a method of printing using liquid ink
projected a drop at a time against a substrate.

ink receptivity

papers vary in their ability to
accept various quantities of inks. Ink receptivity is frequently related
to the porosity of the paper.

instantaneous adhesive

a type of heat sensitive adhesive
that needs application of heat and pressure simultaneously. It is the
opposite type compared to delayed action heat sensitive.

Institute USASI

a non-governmental organization
responsible for the development of voluntary

Instron

an instrument used to determine the
tensile and compressive properties of a material.

insulation

a coating or barrier designed to
prevent the transmission of electricity.

Intercharacter Gap

The space between two adjacent bar
code characters in a discrete code i.e., the clear space between two
characters in USS-39.

Interleaved Two of Five Code

I 2/5

internal bond

a measure of the structural integrity
of the paper. It is needed to prevent the delamination or peeling of
paper during offset printing.

internal stress

strain created within the adhesive
layer by expansion or contraction.

Ion Deposition

see Electrostatic.

IR

abbreviation for infra-red. See
infra-red.

IR thermal

a type of direct thermal paper
designed to be scanned in the infrared scale of light. Some users prefer
this type because infrared scanners use less electricity than
conventional scanners.

JAN

Japanese Article Numbering, same as
EAN.

job lot

rejected material. It could have been
rejected by the manufacturer or by a customer. There is usually some
type of quality defect in job lot material. It is sold at a reduced
price because of the defect.

Kimdura

a polypropylene Kimberly-Clark face
stock. It offers consistent printing compared to vinyl because it does
not need to be top coated for printing. It is guaranteed for one year of
outside exposure and may last longer without degradation. We stock the
FPG 80 grade which has a caliper of 3.2 mil.

Kimdura LI

a special grade of Kimdura treated to
improve anchorage of laser toner and provide better heat resistance
making it more stable during laser printing.

knife coating

a type of adhesive coating consisting
of a rigid blade which is mounted for adjustment above a roll. Fluid
coating material is placed behind the blade so that it is pulled under
the blade. This method can only be used on a continuous coating process.

kraft

a tough, usually brown paper made
from wood pulp treated with a solution of sodium sulfate, used chiefly
for bags and wrapping paper.

KromeKote

a Champion Paper brand name for a
cast coated paper. We call this paper by its trade name in all product
areas except pressure sensitive. We call it High Gloss in Technicote
pressure sensitive product lines. See also cast coated.

label

an item that functions as a means of
identification, especially a small piece of paper or cloth attached to
an article to designate its origin, owner, contents, use, or
destination. It is the functional portion of a pressure, water or heat
sensitive construction consisting of the face stock and adhesive.

Labelmate

a polypropylene liner manufactured by
Mobile Chemical.

lacquer

a clear protective coating, usually
glossy, applied to a printed web in-line on a label press just prior to
die cutting.

ladder

see matrix.

Ladder Code

see Vertical Bar Code.

laminate

a web material formed by bonding two
or more materials together.

Langston

a brand of equipment used for making
spiral wound paper tubes.

laser

a type of computer printing that uses
a dry toner which is fused to paper by a combination of heat and
pressure. Laser printers offer high print resolution, quiet operation
and some have high speed output. The heat and pressure that occurs
during printing can pose problems for adhesive coated labels. Special
pressure sensitive adhesives are selected for compatibility with the
harsh printing environment.

Laser Scanner

An optical bar code reading device
using a low-energy laser light beam as its source of illumination.

latex impregnated paper

paper manufactured in a way to
impregnate or saturate the paper fibers with latex. One method of
manufacture called impregnation combines the latex with the fibers in
the beater prior to formation of the sheet. The second method saturates
the preformed web with a properly compounded latex. The latter is
referred to as latex saturated paper. These grades are characterized by
strength, folding endurance, resistance to penetration by water,
flexibility, durability and resistance to abrasion.

lay-flat

the property of a label construction
which describes its ability to remain flat or non-curling.

LED

Light emitting diode. A semiconductor
that produces light at a frequency determined by its chemical
composition. The light source commonly used in wand-type readers.

legging

the stringing out of pressure
sensitive adhesive when a label is drawn away from a substrate, its
release liner or its matrix.

lexan

general electric company’s trademark
for polycarbonate film.

letter press printing

a printing process that uses raised
type. Generally the smoothness of paper used is very important to
quality printing. Uniformity of caliper is also important. Rotary letter
press printing is higher quality than can usually be achieved by
flexographic printing.

level

the ability of an adhesive to flow
sufficiently upon application so that the exposed surface will be
relatively flat and free from corrugations or other irregularities
resulting from application. This could be another term for an applied
label that looked wrinkled after application.

lifting

pulling away from the substrate a
section of an applied label.

Light Pen

a hand-held pen-like contact reader,
which the user must sweep across the bar code symbol to read the code.

light resistance

the ability of a material to resist
change when exposed to UV light. Common changes that could happen would
be lightening of colors or darkening of colors. Paper can change, films
can change, substrates can change and inks can change.

liner

the layer in the pressure sensitive
construction that prevents one layer of labels from sticking to the
next. The release liner also protects the adhesive from contamination
prior to label application. It has a release coating which provides
adequate adhesion to insure integrity of the construction, but still
allows easy removal by the end user.

liquid glue

an adhesive that is in liquid state
at room temperature. This is one type of adhesive that could be used by
a company applying labels as an alternate to water, heat or pressure
sensitive coated product. Glued labels are less expensive in material
cost than those that are already coated. The application is messy, needs
repeated clean up and frequently results in wrinkled labels. Labels are
applied with liquid glue by hand or automatically. Hand application is
accomplished in similar equipment to that used for water sensitive
adhesives. The main advantage water sensitive offers is reduced clean
ups. Automatic glue labelers tend to be more expensive than pressure
sensitive labelers.

litho

see lithographic paper.

lithographic paper

a paper coated on at least one side
that is suitable for lithographic printing. It is available as a C1S
grade that is only clay coated on one side or a C2S grade that is clay
coated on both sides. This is the full term for paper referred to as
litho. Technicote semigloss, and C1S litho are examples of this type of
paper.

LOGMARS

Logistics Applications of Automated
Marking and Reading Symbols. A U.S. Department of Defense program to
place a Code 39 symbol on all federal items. For specifications, see
Mil-Std 1189. Address: LOGMARS Coordinator, AMCPSCC, Attn: SDSTO-TA,
Tobyhanna, PA 18466-5097. 717-894-7146. FAX 717-894-7894.

loop tack

a test to determine the strength of
immediate adhesion of a pressure sensitive label, usually to stainless
steel.

loop tenacity

another term for loop strength. This
can be a method of testing adhesive strength against a substrate.

low finish

a paper with no glaze or gloss.

LTL

abbreviation for less than a
truckload. It usually refers to shipments less than 40,000 lbs. in
weight.

M 1 yards

a unit of pricing used on binding and
stripping tapes to designate an area one inch wide and 1000 yards in
length. It represents the same amount of area as 36 MSI.

machine direction

the direction of web materials
parallel to it’s forward movement on a machine or coater.

machine finish

In the pressure sensitive industry it
most frequently refers to a liner that was calendered on the paper
machine rather than when calendering is done as a separate operation. It
is full term for abbreviation M.F.

machine-readable

a general term for printed material
which can be directly transferred to a data processing system.

magnetic die

a die used in on roll label presses
that is made from a thin sheet of metal. Magnetic dies attach to a fixed
cylinder magnetically. Magnetic dies are much less expensive to buy than
engraved dies, but they do not last as long. The reason they are less
expensive is that the printer does not buy a new cylinder each time he
buys a die. Their main limitations are that they need a large
circumference cylinder and their shorter life cycle. Their main
advantage is ease of handling and lower cost.

making order

any order which cannot be filled from
stock and is made according to the purchaser’s specifications. It could
involve either a large quantity of a standard item, or it could be a
custom combination that is not currently stocked.

mandrel

the core around which a material is
wound to form tubes.

manifold paper

a light weight paper used by the form
industry for additional carbon copies. Frequently it is in a 7 to 9
pound basis weight bond basis. The paper needs to be light weight so
that imaging will be visible on lower parts of a multi-part form.

Manufacturer’s ID

In the UPC code, the 6 digit number
applied by the UCC to uniquely identify a manufacturer or company
selling products under its own name; the first 6 digits of the 12-digit
UPC number

marginal perforation

a type of perforation in a form used
to enable the user to manually remove the pin feed margins from the
form.

Martin Sweets Reflection Diano
Meter

equipment used to measure brightness
of paper. It was formerly called the G.E. Brightness Tester. See also
brightness.

matrix

the face and adhesive layers of a
pressure sensitive construction surrounding the die-cut labels. this is
usually removed after die-cutting to obtain pressure sensitive labels
mounted on a release liner.

matrix stripping

the act of removing the matrix
surrounding the label at high speeds.

Matrix Symbol Scanners

are designed to evaluate data from a
two dimensional area, locating each printed element in both x and y
coordinates simultaneously. Because of this, CCD camera technology is
currently employed in some of the available scanners.

Matrix Symbols

appear as a checker board; they are
most likely square in shape, and contain some form of unique finder
pattern which distinguishes them from others and provides a decoding
reference for scanners.

matte finish

a dull finish.

MD

This stands for machine direction of
the paper. The machine direction would be the direction of paper
parallel to its forward movement on the paper machine. In rolls it would
be the length of the roll. In sheets it would be the long grain
direction of the sheet. Generally paper offers greater strength and
stiffness in the machine direction.

mechanical adhesion

the attraction of label and substrate
based on the physical interlocking of the adhesive with substrate.
Smoothness of substrate has a big bearing on how good mechanical
adhesion is. The rougher the surface, the less mechanical adhesion there
will be.

medium

a term used in the water sensitive
industry to refer to colored offset base papers.

melting point

the temperature at which a solid
becomes a liquid.

memory

the property of a material that
attempts to return to it’s original shape.

metalized film

a plastic or resinous film that has
been coated on one side with a very thin layer of metal. See metalizing.

metalized paper

a paper that has been coated on one
side with a very thin layer of metal. See metalizing.

metalizing

the application of a thin coating of
metal to a non metallic surface. Metalized papers are in Technicote’s
Roll PS line. They are similar in appearance to foil, but do not have a
solid layer of aluminum.

MHI

Material Handling Institute, Inc.

MICR

abbreviation for magnetic ink
character recognition. It is the process of reading characters by means
of magnetic sensing. The most common application for this type of
scanning is the numbers at the bottom of checks.

migration

the movement of one or more of the
components of a pressure sensitive adhesive to either a substrate or
face stock. It can also refer to components of face stock, ink or
substrate that move into the adhesive. For example, plasticizers in
vinyl frequently migrate into rubber based adhesives causing the label
stock to look transparent.

mil

unit of thickness measurement used
for materials. 1 mil = 0.001 inch = 100 gauge

Mil-Std

Military Standard.

mill brand

a product brand chosen by the paper
mill or supplier as a trade name. It would be the opposite of private
brand where a merchant picks the name.

mimeo bond

a paper used for making copies on the
Mimeograph machine. Absorbency, opacity, finish and scuff resistance are
significant properties. Users of stencil type marking machine equipment
use this type of paper.

MIS

Management Information Systems

misread

a condition which occurs when the
data output of a reader does not agree with the data encoded in the bar
code symbol.

MMMSI

an abbreviation for billion square
inches.

MMSI

an abbreviation for million square
inches.

module

the narrowest nominal unit of measure
in a bar code.

module check digit or character

a character within the symbol data
field calculated using modular arithmetic, which is used for error
detection. The calculated character is determined by applying a code
algorithm to the data field contents. see Check Character.

moisture content

a measure of how much moisture is in
the paper. The moisture content of paper affects its dimensional
stability and affects most of the strength tests. Normally samples are
conditioned in air at 731/4F and 50% RH before conducting strength
tests. A dry paper would tend to tear more easily. Paper changes in
moisture content depending on atmospheric conditions to which it is
subjected. It is measured numerically and higher numbers indicate a
larger amount of moisture is present.

moisture equilibrium

when a sample stops changing in
weight because of moisture absorbed or given off. Paper will get heavier
as it picks up moisture and lighter as it gives off moisture.

moistureproof

the property of a material which
makes it substantially impervious to water vapor. This type of treating
is frequently done on boxes that will be in high moisture atmospheres.
Many types of moistureproof coatings can make label adhesion difficult.
This is particularly the case with water sensitive adhesives. Due to
fears of overstating performance, many use the term moisture resistant
rather than moistureproof.

monomer

a primary chemical structure which
reacts with itself, under the influence of catalytic action, to create
polymeric forms of much greater molecular weight.

mottle

non uniform coloring or gloss level
of paper.

Moving Beam Bar Code Reader

a scanning device where scanning
motion is achieved by mechanically moving the optical geometry.

MRD

minimum reflectance differential; A
method that is used to determine if there is an adequate difference
between absorbed and reflected light.

MRP

material requirements planning.

msi

an abbreviation for thousand square
inches. It is the most common unit of pricing in the roll pressure
sensitive industry. At times it is used for pricing dry gum forms
products.

Mullen tester

a brand of equipment used to test the
bursting strength of paper.

Mylar(r)

Dupont’s trademark for clear, tough
polymeric polyester film.

nameplate

describes a label product generally
manufactured of metal or other material designed to withstand exposure
to adverse conditions. usually contains information such as serial
numbers of components, electrical requirements and are generally affixed
to products utilizing a permanent adhesive.

Nanometer

unit of measure used to define the
wavelength of light. Equal to 10-9 meter.

NC

abbreviation for nitrocellulose. This
top coating is compatible with offset printing and flexo solvent inks,
but not water based flexo inks. Since AC top coatings are compatible
with both water and solvent based flexo inks, only AC is currently
stocked in Technicote roll pressure sensitive line.

NCR Paper(tm)

a brand of carbonless paper. Some
people use NCR Paper(tm) generically to describe carbonless paper made
by a variety of manufactures. See carbonless paper.

neutral papers

papers that have a pH of 6.5 to 7.5
which indicates freedom from acid and alkali. Such papers are chemically
inert and will not cause corrosion of ferrous and non-ferrous metals.

nip

this can have one of two meanings
depending on capitalization. In lower case, this usually refers to the
point of contact between two rolls. When written NIP or N.I.P. this
usually refers to non impact printing. Non impact printing is one of
several methods of placing an image on paper without conventional
contact of a dot matrix printer or typewriter. Typical forms on NIP
printing today are laser, direct thermal and thermal transfer.

Nominal

the exact or ideal intended value for
a specified parameter. Tolerances are specified as positive and negative
deviations from this value.

Non-Contact Reader/Scanner

bar code readers which do not require
physical contact with the printed symbol.

non-oriented film

film which has not been subjected to
stress to align the polymer chains to improve it’s properties.

Non-read

the absence of data at the scanner
output after an attempted scan due to no code, defective code, scanner
failure or operator error.

NTC

abbreviation for non top coated.
Frequently users refer to direct thermal as TC or NTC. The NTC grade
uses the same base paper, but does not have a top coating to protect the
image from liquids.

NTC Thermal

a generic designation for direct
thermal that does not have a top coating mainly used for dry grocery
applications and industrial applications.

number system

Re UPC A method of identifying
individual or groups of objects. Number systems are of two types 1.
Significant digit where each item is uniquely identified. 2.
Non-significant digit where sequential numbers are assigned regardless
of product or item description.

numeric

A character set that includes only
numbers.

Nylon(r)

Dupont’s trade name for a strong
plastic film which has high oil and gas resistance; used as filament to
reinforce and add strength to materials demanding high impact
resistance.

OCR

abbreviation for optical character
recognition. It is a method of scanning letters and turning them into
electronic information.

OCR-A

an abbreviation commonly applied to
the character set contained in ANSI Std. X3.17-1974.

OCR-B

an abbreviation commonly applied to
the character set contained in ANSI Std. X3.49-1975.

offset

a defect in printing characterized by
the partial transference of ink from a freshly printed surface to an
adjacent surface, such as another sheet of paper.

offset paper

a type of paper designed for use on
offset presses with general characteristics to resist distortion from
stretching or shrinking, good pick strength, freedom from fuzz and a
smooth surface which will take ink evenly.

offset printing

a process of indirect printing in
which an impression of type or a design on a plate is printed on a
rubber blanketedcylinder from which it is impressed. i.e.offset upon the
surface to be decorated.

OGR

abbreviation for oil and grease
resistant. Some special purpose litho grades which offer more oil and
grease resistance than standard C1S litho papers. It will not, however,
offer as much resistance as a film would. Generally this type of grade
is used when there might be incidental spilling on the label. It reduces
the amount of transparentizing that will occur when the label is exposed
to oil or grease.

Omnidirectional

bar codes which can be read in any
orientation relative to the scanner.

oozing

a squeezing out of the adhesive from
under the backing substrate.

opacimeter

an instrument that measures the
degree of opacity.

opacity

the ability of the paper to prevent
show-through of type on the reverse side. The higher the opacity, the
more costly it is to produce. Diano and Hugem instruments measure the
percent reflectance of the paper sample backed by a black body compared
to the reflectance of the paper when backed by a white body. Also the
property of a substrate material that minimizes show-through from the
back side or the next sheet. The ratio of the reflectance with a black
backing to the reflectance with a white backing. Ink opacity is the
property of an ink that prevents the substrate from showing through.

opp

oriented polypropylene

open time

the amount of time between applying
the adhesive and completing the bond.

Optical Throw

the distance from the scanner face to
the closest point at which symbol can be read; also, optical throw is
the difference between range and depth of field.

Opticite(r) film

a Dow Chemical polystyrene face
stock. See polystyrene.

Opticite(r) SQZ

Dow Opticite(r) specially
manufactured for potential use in flexible packaging applications. It is
a more economical alternate to vinyl in squeeze applications.

orientation

in bar codes, the alignment of the
symbol’s scan path. Two possible orientations are horizontal with
vertical bars and spaces picket fence and vertical with horizontal bars
and spaces ladder. In adhesives, the alignment of the crystalline
structure in polymeric materials so as to produce a highly uniform
structure. can be accomplished by cold drawing or stretching during
fabrication.

package level indicators

Individual items marked with UPC are
frequently packaged in standard quantities of intermediate packs and
shipping containers. Each different standard package quantity for each
standard product is assigned a package level and assigned a unique
number.

pallet

a platform onto which product can be
leaded for storage or transporting. Most that we use are wood. Some
customers refer to pallets as skids.

paper

a material made of cellulose pulp,
derived mainly from wood, rags, and certain grasses, processed into
flexible sheets or rolls by deposit from an aqueous suspension, and used
chiefly for writing, printing, drawing, wrapping, and covering walls.

paper formation

an indication of evenness with which
the cellulose fibers are bound together. The more uniform the formation,
the better the print quality will be.

paper tube

a spiral wound tube used for mailing
or packaging which is usually made with open ends. It varies from a core
mainly by wall thickness and end use.

pattern coated

an adhesive coating which does not
completely cover the surface. There are several terms that could refer
to something that is pattern coated. They are strip coated, strip gummed
and zone coated. Technicote is capable of strip coating and strip
gumming adhesives.

PCS

Print Contrast Signal

PDF417

a stacked or 2-dimensional bar code
with very high data density and a high degree of security.

peel adhesion

the force required to remove a
pressure sensitive adhesive label from a standard test panel at a
specified angle and speed after it has been applied to the test panel
under specified conditions.

Pen Scanner

a pen-like device either connected by
wire to a device, or self-contained, used to read bar codes. Requires
direct contact with the symbol.

perforated

a series of small incisions made in
paper to facilitate tearing along a predetermined line. There are two
common uses for perforating. One is in the forms industry when it is
desired that a user will separate part of the form. A second is when
product is fan folded. Perforations at a right angle to the machine
direction of the paper allow the product to fan fold and be pulled apart
one sheet at a time. Both label printers and business form manufacturers
use perforations for this purpose.

permanent adhesive

an adhesive characterized by having
relatively high adhesion to a wide variety of surfaces. They are used in
applications in which the user wants the label to stay on the substrate
for a prolonged period of time.

pH

the measure of the acidity or
alkalinity of a solution, numerically equal to 7 for neutral solutions,
increasing with increasing alkalinity and decreasing with increasing
acidity. The pH scale commonly in use ranges from 0 to 14.

photo comp

photo composition – A system to
produce very high quality labels by computer/photography.

pick

the tendency of fibers or particles
to be pulled away from the sheet surface when removed from tacky
surfaces such as printing plates.

pick resistance

a measure of the amount of tack from
inks needed to pull fibers out of the paper’s printing surface.

picket fence code

see horizontal bar code.

piggyback

a pressure sensitive label stock that
has one face stock, and two layers of adhesive and liner. It is used in
applications where the label needs to be applied initially to one
surface, but later removed and applied to a second surface. The mailing
label on the income tax form is an example of this type of label.

pin feed

a method of transporting paper
through a computer printer which uses a round wheel of pins. The pins
fit into holes punched in the outside 1/2 edge of each side of the
paper. Sometimes this type of mechanism is referred to as tractor feed.

pin hole

a very small hold which may permit
the passage of light, moisture or electrical content.

pitch

rotation of a bar code symbol about
an axis parallel to the direction of the bars.

plasticizer

a substance added to materials to
impart softness, flexibility, workability, elongation, and
dispensability.

plastic – high se

an abbreviation for plastic – high
surface energy. Some examples are high density polyethylene, PET, PETE,
Vinyl, Polyproplyene. Some of these plastics provide more difficult
adhesion for many adhesives than low se plastics.

plastic – low se

an abbreviation for plastic – low
surface energy. Some examples are low density polyethylene, polystyrene,
Telfon, rubber (latex.) and styrofoam. Some of these plastics provide
easier adhesion to many adhesives than high se plastics.

plasticity

the characteristic or retaining
deformation after the deforming stresses are removed.

plasticize

to soften an adhesive or coating by
plasticizers

plasticizer

a substance added to materials to
impart flexibility, workability and elongation.

plated

a colored water sensitive base paper
on which coloration occurs on the clay coating only. Plated grades are
white on the back, whereas mediums are the same color on both sides.
Since plated colors are clay coated on the print side, they offer higher
resolution printing.

Plessey Code

A pulse-width modulated bar code
commonly used for shelf marking in grocery stores.

PLU

Price Lookup

point

a term used for an expression of
thickness of paper in one-thousands of an inch.

polarity

the relative surface charge of an
adhesive resulting from the molecular structure of the substrate.

polycarbonate

a high clarity film having the
versatility of acetate, with the durability of polyester.

polyester

a strong film having good resistance
to moisture, solvents, oils and many other chemicals.

polyester metallized film

a clear polyester film, vacuum
metallized on one side to provide a metallic look.

polyethylene

a tough, stretchy plastic film having
very good low temperature characteristics.

polypropylene

similar to polyethylene, but stronger
and having a higher temperature resistance. excellent clarity for no
label look.

polystyrene

a thermoplastic produced by the
polymerization of styrene. the electrical insulating properties are good
and moisture resistant.

polyvinyl

a group of resins formed by
polymerizing various vinyl monomers.

porosity

a measure of air resistance through a
sheet of paper. It is an important factor in determining how much
adhesive or ink will soak into a paper. Porosity is measured numerically
by indicating how long a standard volume of air will take to pass
through the paper. Lower numbers indicate that the paper is more porous
or more absorbent. We need to be careful. in paper selection to make
sure that that porosity is not too low. Gurley Densometer and Sheffield
Porosity tester determine porosity by forcing air through the paper
sample and measuring it in time or rate of flow. The Gurley measures the
time in seconds for 100 ml of air. The higher the score, the denser the
paper. The Sheffield measures rate of flow of a continuous flow of air
through the sheet. The higher the score the less dense the sheet.

Postnet Code

The code developed by the U.S. Postal
Service to assist in automatic sortation of mail.

Potdevin

a brand of glue label applicators.

preheating

an initial warm up of product before
more extensive heat is applied. Many high speed laser printers use a
preheat platen to begin warming paper up to fusion temperature.

preprinted symbol

a symbol which is printed in advance
of application either on a label or on the article to be identified.

pressure sensitive

an adhesive that is normally tacky at
room temperature. They require no activation by water, solvent or heat
in order to exert a strong adhesive holding force on a substrate.

pressure sensitive label

a self adhesive label construction
composed of face stock, pressure sensitive adhesive and release liner.
The official TLMI definition is A pressure sensitive self adhesive label
product is a die-cut part that has been converted through roll fed
production equipment utilizing the type of pressure sensitive self
adhesive material which has a protective backing. The end product is
produced in the form of either rolls, sheets, fanfold, or by other
techniques that produce like products which have been slit or cut from
the converted rolls. Sheet PS product is also made into labels that
would be considered pressure sensitive labels.

pressure sensitive label stock

the combination of face stock,
pressure sensitive adhesive and release liner from which pressure
sensitive labels are manufactured.

prime label

a label used to identify and display
a product.

print contrast

see PCS.

print quality

the measure of compliance of a bar
code symbol to the requirements of dimensional tolerance, edge
roughness, spots, voids, reflectance, PCS, quiet zone, and encodation.

printability

the ability of a surface to accept
and hold printing inks; especially to resist offset of the printing when
rewound into a roll after printing. surface treatment is often used to
increase the degree of printability.

printout

variable information which has been
written by automatic printer from a computer.

process printing

printing from a series of two or more
halftone plates to produce intermediate colors and shades.

Product ID

In the UPC code, the 5 digit number
assigned by a manufacturer to every consumer unit in its product
catalog. The Product ID is different for every standard package consumer
unit of the same product.

protective coating

a coating that protects the printing
and the surface of a pressure sensitive label from either abrasion,
sunlight, chemicals, moisture or a combination of these. Top Coating on
direct thermal product is an example of this type of coating.

PSI

an abbreviation for pounds per square
inch. Some laser equipment literature indicates the PSI pressure which
the printer will subject the paper.

PVC

polyvinyl chloride

quick stick

the property of a pressure sensitive
adhesive which allows it to adhere to a surface under very light
pressure. It is determined by the ability of the adhesive to quickly wet
the surface contacted. This term can also apply to water and heat
sensitive adhesives.

quiet zone

a clear space, containing no dark
marks, which precedes the start character of a symbol and follows the
stop characters.

radio frequency

non-optical automatic identification
devices that use radio waves to transmit data.

radio frequency tag

an electronic tag capable of
receiving/storing and/or transmitting digital information.

range of a scanner

The larger the element, the greater
the range and ease-of-use of a scanner.

rate of set

the time required for an adhesive
under a specific set of conditions to arrive at a fiber tearing bond.

reactivation, heat

to restore the tackiness of the
adhesive with heat and bond under pressure.

reactivation, solvent

to restore the surface tackiness in a
dry adhesive film with a suitable solvent.

ream

500 sheets of paper.

ream marker

a piece of paper used to show
divisions between reams.

ream weight

the amount which one ream of paper
weighs.

reflectance

the ratio of the amount of light of a
specified wavelength or series of wavelengths reflected from a test
surface to the amount of light reflected from a barium oxide or
magnesium oxide standard.

regenerated cellulose cellophane

a thin, flexible, transparent
cellulose material made from wood pulp and used as a moistureproof
wrapping.

register

the exact corresponding placement of
successively printed images and/or successively die-cut labels.

relative humidity

the ratio of the amount of moisture
contained in the atmosphere to the amount of moisture that can be
carried in the atmosphere at a given temperature. Relative humidity is
expressed in percent — 75% RH That means at the temperature that the
air is 75% saturated with moisture. Ideal conditions for many methods of
printing are 75 degrees F and 50% RH Printers need special equipment to
maintain this type of atmosphere year around. Most do not have the
equipment and tend to run press rooms that are dry during the winter and
more moist than ideal during the summer. The larger the deviation from
ideal, the greater tendency will be for the sheets of paper to curl.

release

the act of freeing or separating a
pressure sensitive adhesive from it’s release liner.

release coat

the coating on a release liner that
allows removal of the adhesive. It is frequently silicone based. See
also liner and release level.

release coat transfer

the defect referring to the transfer
of release coat from the release liner to the pressure sensitive
adhesive. If excessive, adhesion will be reduced even when enough
adhesive is applied to the construction. This is also called silicone
transfer.

release level

a measurement of the force needed to
remove a release liner from an adhesive. Testing is done on a standard
size sample and force needed to separate the liner from the adhesive is
measured in grams. The lower the number, the easier it is to remove the
liner.

release liner

the component of the pressure
sensitive label stock which functions as a carrier for the pressure
sensitive label. Prior to application, it protects the adhesive and
readily separates from the label immediately before the label is applied
to its substrate.

remoistening

an adhesive system which is
reactivated by application of water upon the adhesive film.

removability

a relative term applied to pressure
sensitive adhesives to describe the force under which the adhesive can
be separated from the substrate. A removable label would be one in which
no damage or staining occurs to the substrate or the face stock on
separation from substrate. This action is relative to substrate and
application conditions. Few removable adhesives are removable from all
surfaces.

removable adhesive

a pressure sensitive adhesive
characterized by low ultimate adhesion to a wide variety of surfaces.

repositionable label

an application that requires that the
label be initially removable, but build to permanence in a reasonable
amount of time. Repositionable labels allow removal of crooked or
wrinkled labels without destroying the substrate or label. By the time
the label gets to the end user, it is a permanent label. Generally
repositionable labels use acrylic permanent adhesives because they offer
low initial tack, but build to permanent adhesion.

repositioning

a re-lamination of labels to a
different position on the backing paper. While it is frequently done
after die cutting, it can be done before. Separation of face and liner
may temporarily reduce release values making the product easier to
strip.

resolution

a term used to describe how finely
detailed a printed image is. Usually it is used in relation to EDP
printing. Related terms are DPI and dots per inch. The higher the DPI,
the higher the resolution. Images look more natural at high resolutions.
High resolution is also important for accuracy of bar code scanning. The
narrowest element dimension which can be distinguished by a particular
reading device or printed with a particular device or method.

rewinding

the operation of winding the paper
from one roll to another. In printing this is frequently done for
inspection purposes and to cut down larger diameter press rolls into
lengths acceptable to the end customer. It is also used as a method of
processing a second time rolls that did not wind evenly during initial
production.

ribbon

a cloth or plastic tape coated with
several layers of material, one of which is ink-like, that produces the
visible marks on a substrate. Used on formed font impact, dot matrix,
thermal transfer and hot stamp printers. Also called Foil.

Rockwell hardness

a common method of testing a plastics
material for resistance to indentation in which a diamond or steel ball
under pressure is used to pierce the test specimen. Die hardness is also
measured on a Rockwell scale.

roll label

pressure sensitive labels that are
stored in roll form.

rotary press

a printing press using plates formed
to fit rolls and using paper in continuous rolls.

rotogravure printing

printing process that utilizes
cylinders that have the design etched into the metal surface. the
material to be printed comes in contact with the etched cylinder and the
ink is transferred to the surface of the label material.

rubber based adhesives

adhesives composed of synthetic or
natural rubber plus other components which form pressure sensitive
compounds. Most rubber based adhesives offer fast quick stick and high
ultimate adhesion. They do not age as well as acrylic adhesives.

saturation impregnation

adding materials to the backing for
improvement of physical properties and resistance to various
environments. See impregnation.

scanner

an electronic device that optically
converts optical information into electrical signals.

scoring

a V cut part of the way through
paper. It enables folding on boxes. It is called compression scoring on
sheet pressure sensitive liner. See compression score.

screen printing

a method of printing in which the ink
is forced through the image area of a properly stretched fabric by use
of a squeegee.

self wound

a roll of material with a carrier
that has adhesive on both sides. This can also describe pressure
sensitive product shipped in roll form which does not utilize a separate
release liner.

self-checking

a bar code or symbol using a checking
algorithm which can be independently applied to each character to guard
against undetected errors.

self-contained carbonless

this is carbonless paper that will
image without contact against other carbonless papers. We do not stock
self-contained, but can supply it on a custom basis with either water or
pressure sensitive adhesives.

service temperature

the temperature to which a properly
applied label is subjected after application. Most adhesives have a
wider recommended service temperature range than application temperature
range. Usually once the label is properly applied, it will continue to
perform in a wide variety of temperatures. For example, a general
purpose room temperature permanent label will usually continue to stick
even though it is placed in freezing conditions as long as the label has
enough time to set up properly.

set

the interval of time required for
adhesive bonding.

set-off

this is another name for ink offset
that happens when ink transfers from a printed sheet to a sheet in
contact with it at the delivery end of the press.

setting temperature

the temperature to which a liquid
resin, an adhesive takes to solidify or form a bond.

setting time

the time required for a product to
approach maximum strength or firmness.

shear adhesion

another term for holding power. This
is the time required, under specified test conditions to slide a
standard area of pressure sensitive label from a standard flat surface
in a direction parallel to the surface. See holding power.

shear strength

the relative resistance of an
adhesive film to a stress applied in such a manner that the surfaces
slide in a plane parallel to their plane of contact.

shear test

a method of separating two adhesive
bonded materials by forcing the interfaces to slide over each other. The
force exerted is distributed over the entire bonded area at the same
time. Strengths are measured time for the bonded materials to separate
for specified force used to pull them apart.

Sheffield

this test measures smoothness of
paper. Sheffield Porosity Tester determines porosity by forcing air
through the paper sample and measuring it rate of flow. The Sheffield
measures rate of flow of a continuous flow of air through the sheet. The
higher the score the less dense the sheet.

shelf life

the period of time during which a
product can be stored under specified conditions and will remain
suitable for use.

shipping container symbol

the 14-digit number applied to
intermediate packs and shipping containers containing UPC marked items.
It is always encoded in the Interleaved 2 of 5 symbology.

show-through

the generally undesirable property of
a substrate that permits underlying markings to be seen.

shrink wrapping

a technique of packaging in which the
strains in a plastic film are released by raising the temperature of the
film. This causes it to shrink over the package.

silicone

a polymer system which can be a very
effective release coating or a pressure sensitive adhesive capable of
functioning effectively at extreme temperatures. In the pressure
sensitive industry silicone is most frequently used as a release agent.
Usually silicone adhesives are used in specialized industrial
applications.

silicone adhesive

has remarkable stability through a
wide temperature range. Tests indicate little performance change at 300
degrees F to -100 degrees F. Limitations on their use include high
temperature cure and relatively high cost.

silicone transfer

see release coat transfer.

silicone voids

a small section of release coating
that does not have any release properties. It is usually circular in
shape. When silicone voids occur, the adhesive will stick to the paper
on the liner and not remove. This can cause face stock delamination,
liner delamination or a web break when automatically applying roll
pressure sensitive product.

sizing

a process done to a paper internally
and on the surface by the paper mill. Internal sizing helps determine
the rate at which the paper absorbs moisture. External sizing helps glue
down the fibers and enhance the prospect of a clean print job.

skew

rotation of a bar code symbol about
an axis parallel to the symbol’s length.

skid

a platform, usually wooden, on which
paper is packed for shipment.

SKU

Stock Keeping Unit, referring to a
particular item included in a data base.

slime spots

a defect in base paper causing semi-
transparent spots. They are caused by microorganisms which grew in one
of the many wet spots around the wet end of a paper machine. These are
sterilized by the dryers, but are unsightly and can cause holes in the
paper.

slitter

a sharp disk which cuts paper into
pre-determined widths. The term usually refers to the machine, not just
the knives.

smoothness

Papers vary in smoothness. Generally
the smoother a paper is, the better dot formation will be. This results
in a crisper printed image.

smudge resistance

resistance of a printed paper surface
to ink blurring or smearing and thus related to the absorption of the
paper. Resistance to smudging of impact computer inks and typewriter
ribbon inks are of concern for legibility. If there is too much smudging
before the ink is fully dry, the image will be difficult to read. A
crude test can be done by running a finger across freshly printed
material to see if it smudges. The ribbon ink used in an IBM Selectric
typewriter is one of the worst smudging ribbons that can be used. If the
paper will not smudge with that, it is unlikely it will smudge with most
other ribbons.

smudgeproof

a grade of paper that offers smudge
resistance. See smudge resistance.

Smudgeproof Kimdura

Kimdura that is top coated with a
smudgeproof coating to enhance smudge resistance when printing with
computers or typewriters. Smudgeproof Kimdura offers exceptional thermal
transfer printing properties because of its extreme smoothness.

smudgeproof latex

a roll pressure sensitive face stock
that is latex impregnated and coated with a top coating to improve
smudge resistance when printing on computers and typewriters.

solid state laser scanner

a relatively leading edge type of
laser that has become quite successful. It emits light at a wavelength
of 670 nm and also at 780 nm.

solvent

a chemical substance capable of
dissolving another material.

solvent resistance

the resistance of a pressure
sensitive label to the action of specific organic liquids.

source marking

the process of labeling an item with
a bar code at the point of its initial production.

space

the lighter element of a bar code
usually formed by the background between bars.

space width

the thickness of a space measured
from the edge closest to the symbol start character to the trailing edge
of the same space.

SPC

abbreviation for Statistical Process
Control. See Statistical Process Control.

specific adhesion

the adhesive’s ability to stick to a
surface. Many adhesives will bond well to one type of surface, but
poorly to another. Specific adhesion is usually tested by measuring the
force needed to peel the adhesive coated label from a specific surface.
The attraction of label and substrate based on the molecular attraction
of adhesive and substrate. The force required to remove a pressure
sensitive adhesive from a specific substrate under specified conditions.

Spectral Response

The variation in sensitivity of a
reading device to light of different wavelengths.

Specular Reflection

The mirror-like reflection of light
from a surface.

spiral tube

a paper tube made of two or more
plies of chip board spirally wound on a mandrel so that layers are fed
at an angle less than a right angle to the mandrel.

split back

cuts through the release liner for
the purpose of removal of the liner. These cuts are all the way through
the liner rather than compressed scores which only weaken the liner, but
do not break it.

split face

cuts in the face stock all the way
through the face stock for the purpose of removing the label. This is
also called a face split.

spot

the undesirable presence of ink or
dirt in a space.

spot label

a label that does not extend
completely around a substrate. Usually on round containers, spot labels
are less than 1/2 the circumference.

SPRR Second Pass Read Rate

The ratio of the number of
successful. reads to the number of attempts on the second effort.

spunbond polyolefin

describes a synthetic plastic
material formed by the random distribution of very fine continuous
fibers which are selfbonded by heat and pressure.

squeegee

a T-shaped implement having a
crosspiece edged with rubber or leather that is drawn across a surface
to remove excessive ink. It is used in screen printing to force ink
through openings in the silk screen.

stability

property which allows an adhesive to
be stored under specified conditions without loss of its original
properties.

STAC

Symbol Technical Advisory Committee
to the Uniform Code Council, Inc. see Uniform Code Council.

Stacked Codes

2D Symbols 16K and Code 49 are
examples where a long symbol is broken into sections and stacked one
upon another similar to sentences in a paragraph. Extremely compact
codes. Stacked Code Symbols can be scanned by conventional, linear bar
code scanners loaded with the proper software. These include laser
scanners, linear CCD scanners, and the 2-D cameras required by Matrix
symbols. Stacked Code Symbols are easy to scan with hand-held devices.

standard

a set of rules, specifications,
instructions and directions to use a bar code or other automatic
identification system to your profit. Usually issued by an organization,
e.g. LOGMARS, HIBCC, UPC, etc.

stabilize

to increase the steadiness of a film,
keeping it from changing or fluctuating.

Start-Stop Character or Pattern

a special bar code character that
provides the scanner with start and stop reading instructions as well as
scanning direction. The start character is normally at the left-hand end
of a horizontally oriented symbol. The stop character is normally at the
right-hand end of a horizontally oriented symbol.

static cling

an induced property of a film which
enables it to grab onto a smooth, clean surface without the using an
adhesive.

Statistical Process Control

a quality control system that uses
recording instrumentation to continuously monitor production to make
sure it remains within specifications. When virtually all readings are
within tolerance, the process is considered within statistical control.
When variations are significant or frequent efforts are made to find the
cause and correct it. This is the full name for SPC

stencil

a marking machine industry term
referring to printing with a paper stencil. Impact printing removes part
of the stencil coating permitting the ink to transfer to the paper where
the image will be. Generally this type of printing needs a very
absorbent paper because inks dry by absorption rather than oxidation.
20# Mimeo is a suitable face stock for this type of printing.

stiffness

the measure or degree of resistance
to bending stress of a material.

stretch

the elongation of a strip of paper
when subjected to a tensile pull.

strip coated

pressure sensitive coating when
product is not fully adhesive coated. It is the same as strip gummed
except that it is done with pressure sensitive adhesives rather than
water sensitive. See strip gummed.

strip gummed

water sensitive product which is not
fully coated with adhesive. There is a strip or strips of adhesive in
the machine direction of the product. Strip gumming is used in
applications in which only part of the product is going to become a
label. Frequently, the printer will perforate the product at the edge of
adhesive so that the label can be removed. We can only strip gum in the
machine direction of the paper. While less adhesive is used in strip
gummed product, the product is more expensive for several reasons. First
it is a specialty product. Second we frequently have to run this type of
product at slower production speeds than fully coated material. It also
needs more set up time and causes more waste than fully gummed
materials.

strong gum

a type of conventional gum designed
for good adhesion to corrugated. It was originally an animal glue, but
now has chemical additives to promote adhesion. It is slightly more
expensive than dextrine adhesives, but less expensive than dry gum
adhesives. See also conventional gum, dextrine, animal glue, bone glue
and dry gum.

stub roll

a short roll of face stock or label
stock. Sample rolls are sometimes called stub rolls.

substance

the weight in pounds of a ream of
paper cut to a given size. The standard sized ream varies with different
grades of paper according to trade customs.

substitution error

a mis-encodation, mis-read or human
key entry error where a character that was to be entered is substituted
with erroneous information. Example: Correct information

substrate

the surface to which a material
(adhesive) is applied. Also the surface on which a bar code symbol is
printed.

subsurface printing

printing the underside of a
transparent film. ultimately the ink will be sandwiched between the film
that was printed and the film or surface to which it is applied.

sunlight resistance

the ability of a material to resist
the deteriorating effects of sunlight, especially those wavelengths in
the ultraviolet and infra-red ends of the spectrum.

surface energy

a numerical expression in dynes/cm of
the cohesive energy of the surface molecules.

surface preparation

the physical and chemical methods
used to prepare a surface for further processing.

synthetics

those materials developed and
manufactured through chemistry, which tend to replace natural materials.

sunlight resistance

another term for UV resistance. It is
the ability of a material to resist deteriorating effects of sunlight.

super calender

an off line paper manufacturing
process used to alter the surface of a paper. It is constructed on the
same general principle as a calender, except that alternate chilled
cast-iron and soft rolls are used. It improves the smoothness and gloss
level of the paper.

symbol

a combination of characters including
start/stop characters, quiet zones, data characters, and check
characters required by a particular symbology, which form a complete,
scannable entity.

symbol density

the number of data characters per
unit length; usually expressed as Characters Per Inch CPI

symbol length

the distance between the outside
edges of the quiet zone.

symbology

similar to Morse Code that encodes
characters in DOTS & DASHES, numbers, letters, and computer-recognized
characters can be represented in a combination of bars and spaces. The
rules for encoding the characters in wide and narrow bars and spaces are
called a symbology.

Taber

equipment used to measure the
stiffness of paper. See also stiffness.

tack

the property od a pressure sensitive
adhesive which causes it to adhere to a substrate with a minimum of
pressure and time.

tack range

the time during which an adhesive
remains tacky.

tackifier

a material added to an adhesive to
improve the initial and extended tack range of the adhesive.

tackiness

the stickiness of the adhesive while
in the stage of drying.

tactified acrylic adhesive

acrylic adhesives to which tactifying
agents were added. The tactifying agents boost quick stick of the
acrylic adhesive.

tamper evident

see tamperproof.

tamper-evident label

a pressure sensitive label
construction made of materials that will partially distruct, indicating
that a package, label or container has been tampered with.

tamperproof

destructible. a pressure sensitive
material which can not be removed intact from a substrate and reused.

tamperproof label

a pressure sensitive construction
made with a face stock having a low strength so that attempted removal
of the label will usually result in destruction of the label. In recent
years this type of label is named tamper-evident rather than
tamperproof. Tamper-evident labels are designed for the same purpose,
but the name recognizes the difficulty in designing anything that is
totally tamperproof.

TAPPI

an abbreviation for Technical
Association of the Paper and Pulp Industry.

TC

abbreviation for top coating. See top
coating.

TC Thermal

a face stock that is direct thermal
coated and has a protective top coating. The protective top coating
improves its resistance to image darkening from various liquids.

TCS

Transport Case Symbol.

tear

tear strength is tested to determine
the uniformity of refining, the length and formation of fibers in paper.
The strength can be important to the printer or converter. Elmendorf
tearing tester is the test instrument. Normally testing is done machine
direction and cross direction. See also Elmendorf, machine direction and
cross direction.

Tedlar(r)

dupont’s trademark for biaxially
oriented polyvinyl fluoride. a durable, chemical resistant, protective
film.

Telepen

a continuous bar code which encodes
the full ASCII character set.

telescoping

a sideways sliding of label layers
from a wound roll that gives a funnel or telescope appearance.

tensile strength

indicates the amount of pull
necessary to break the paper. It is measured in machine direction MD and
cross machine direction CD. Generally this is a measure of paper
strength. It is measured numerically and the higher the number the
stronger the paper. Minimum MD and CD tensile strength standards are set
for all incoming papers.

Texoprint(r)

a Kimberly-Clark base stock that is
latex impregnated. It differs from Duraform(r) Latex by heavier weight
and a greater amount of latex impregnation. Texoprint(r) is more durable
than latex, but is more expensive.

Thermage

a trademark for a decorating process
for plastic which transfers the image of a label to the object under the
influence of heat and light pressure.

Thermal

A printing system where dots are
selectively heated and cooled on heat sensitive paper. The paper turns
dark in the heated areas.

thermal transfer

a type of non impact printing in
which heat is applied to a wax or resin ribbon. The ribbon transfers ink
to paper. Eliminates the problems of fading or changing color inherent
in thermal.

thermoplastic

capable of being melted or deformed
by the application of heat.

thermosetting adhesives

adhesives which set up or harden when
heated.

thickness

the distance from one side of the
material to the other. This is another term for caliper or gauge.

tie coat

one layer of a coating system used to
improve the adhesion of adjacent or succeeding coats.

tilt

rotation of a bar code symbol about
an axis perpendicular to the substrate.

tipping

a process of applying a piggy back
label to a business form automatically. Frequently piggy back labels are
automatically applied with Label Aire labeling heads that are part of
larger equipment that insures that the label will apply in the same
place on each form.

tolerance

the specified allowance for
deviations in weighing, measuring, etc. or deviations from the standard
dimensions or weight. Most coating properties have a target value, a low
acceptable tolerance and a high acceptable tolerance.

Toluene

a commercial solvent used in the
manufacture of some water sensitive adhesives, particularly dry gum.

topcoat

a surface treatment or coating on the
surface of a material which enhances ink receptivity.

top coating

a coating done on top of a face stock
to improve ink receptivity, or to make the label more durable.
Nitrocellulose is used as a top coating for offset printing. Acrylic top
coated material will not offset print well. On the other hand, acrylic
top coatings are compatible with both water based and solvent flexo
inks. Top coating on direct thermal protects the label from liquids that
could darken the image. Some films are also top coated to enhance
printing characteristics.

trademarks

A number of trademarks appear in this
help file. They include. Texoprint(r), Duraform(r), Kimdura(r) and
Satin-L(r) are trademarks of Kimberly-Clark Corporation. Tyvek(r) is a
trademark of Dupont. Opticite(r) is a registered trademark of the Dow
Chemical Company. Die Life II(r) is a registered trademark of Miami
Valley Papers. NCR Paper(tm) is a trademark of NCR Corporation licensed
to Appleton Papers, Inc. Microsoft(r), Windows(r) and Microsoft Access(r)
are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States
and other countries.

transfer tape

a pressure sensitive tape with a
liner release coated on both sides. It is applied to a plain paper and
the adhesive transfers to the plain paper. Eventually the end user
removes the liner and the adhesive stays with the paper to which the
transfer tape was attached. The end product is similar to strip coated
pressure sensitive. While transfer tape is expensive on a MSI basis, the
user needs less of it than if he bought a strip coated construction.

translucent

transmitting light in a diffuse
manner so that objects beyond cannot be clearly distinguished.

transparency

that property of a material which
transmits light so that objects can be directly seen through the
material.

trim

the maximum width of finished paper
which can be made on a particular machine. It also refers to material
cut off the edges of rolls.

truckload

40,000 lb. shipments usually make up
a truckload in water or heat sensitive paper. Users of roll pressure
sensitive usually consider a shipment of 140 MMSI a truckload. Sometimes
this is abbreviated TL or T/L.

tunneling

a defect occurring when laminates are
incompletely bonded. It is characterized by release of longitudinal
portions of the substrate and deformation of these portions to form
tunnel-like structures.

Type L

a designation for U.L. approval which
indicates that U.L. tested the label material on stainless steel and
found that it could not be removed with out label destruction. See also
UL

Tyvek(r)

Dupont’s trademark for spunbonded
polyolefin material frequently used as a facestock where very high
tensile strength is required.

UL

an abbreviation for Underwriters
Laboratory. This organization approves label materials for electrical
product applications. They also approve label materials for ladders.
Label materials designated as U.L. approved were tested and found to
meet specific requirements. The least stringent approval is called type
L and classification marker approval. U.L. tests samples against
stainless steel panels to make sure that attempted removal will result
in label destruction. U.L. also approves label materials for specific
applications and substrates.

U.L. Approved

a group of pressure sensitive
constructions that have been approved by Underwriters Laboratory for
certain applications.

UCC

Uniform Code Council, formerly
Uniform Product Code Council; the organization which administers the UPC
and other retail standards. Address: 8163 Old Yankee Road, Suite J,
Dayton, OH 45458.

UCS

Uniform Container Symbol.

ultimate adhesion

the maximum adhesion available from a
pressure sensitive adhesive determined by the force necessary to remove
a strip of tape from a surface after an extended period of time.

ultraviolet

the zone of invisible radiations
beyond the violet end of the visible light spectrum. UV is the
abbreviation. UV wavelengths are shorter than visible slight and have
more energy that can cause degradation.

un-bleached

paper or pulp which has not been
treated with bleaching agents.

Uncoated Litho

a roll pressure sensitive face stock
which does not have a clay printing coating. The print surface is
relatively rough and print quality is not as high as with clay coated
face stocks.

uncoated paper

could have two meanings. It could
represent any paper that does not have adhesive. It could also represent
a type of paper that does not have any clay coating. All of the paper is
made from pulp. The meaning would depend on the context in which it is
used. See also coated paper.

under-run

production or delivery that is less
than the quantity ordered by the customer. Over-run is the opposite. All
of Technicote products have published shipment tolerances. Product is
not considered under-run or over-run unless the difference exceeds those
tolerances.

Underwriters Laboratory

the full name for U.L. See UL

untrimmed

paper rewound without slitting off a
trim edge.

UPC

Universal Product Code, the standard
bar code symbol for retail food packages in the United States. It
encodes a 12-digit number assigned to specific consumer units of general
trade items. The first 6 digits are assigned by the UCC. The next 5
digits are assigned by the manufacturer. The final digit is a check
digit.

UPCC

Universal Product Carton Code; a
standard administered by the UCC.

USS

Uniform Symbol Specification. The
current series of symbology specifications published by AIM; currently
includes USS-I 2/5, USS-39, USS-93, USS-Codabar and USS-128. USS-I 2/5.
There is no inter-character gap in a continuous code.

UTT

an abbreviation for uncoated thermal
transfer. See also CTT, Thermal Transfer CTT, thermal transfer and
Thermal Transfer UTT.

UV resistance

the ability of any material to
withstand extended exposure to sunlight without degradation, hardening
or discoloring.

UV varnish

lacquer or varnish usually applied
over the printed web used as a protective layer that is cured by
exposure to a high intensity ultra violet light source

variable length code

a code whose number of encoded
characters can be within a range, as opposed to a code with a fixed
number of encoded characters.

vegetable gum

a class of adhesives derived from
plants or plant material.

vellum finish

a full, toothy finish which is
relatively absorbent for fast ink penetration. Text papers in books
frequently have a vellum finish. Vellum would not be as smooth as a
smooth offset or English Finish grade.

verifier

a device that makes measurements of
the bars, spaces, quiet zones and optical characteristics of a symbol to
determine if the symbol meets the requirements of a specification or
standard.

vertical bar code

a bar code pattern presented in such
orientation that the symbol from start to stop is perpendicular to the
horizon. The individual bars are in an array appearing as rungs of a
ladder.

Viscosimeter

an instrument for measuring the
viscosity or resistance to flow of a liquid.

vinyl

synthetic plastic products
manufactured in rigid or flexible constructions. also known as pvc.
tough, durable film having excellent resistance to oils, chemicals and
many solvents. it can also be colored.

viscosity

the tendency of liquids to flow. The
main unit of measure is centipoise. See also centipoise.

VLD

visible laser diode.

void

In coatings, a bare uncoated area on
a film. In bar codes the undesirable absence of ink in a bar.

wall thickness

the difference between the inside
diameter or id and the outside diameter or OD of a tube or core. Thick
walls would offer more strength than thin walls.

wand

see Wand Scanner.

wand scanner

a hand-held scanning device used as a
contact bar code or OCR reader.

warp

a cloth term describing the
lengthwise thread or yarn pattern running the length of the loom. Warp
is usually stronger than the woof. Ease of tearing is greater with the
warp and across the woof. Warp and woof thread count is specified on raw
materials. The quantity of threads have a bearing on the strength of
cloth. Holland, Cambric, Gusset and Clayfilled Splicing tapes are all
cloth items. See also woof.

waste

see matrix. This can also refer to
sub standard material that needs to be thrown out as a result of
production process. A printer could complain, for example, that his
waste levels were too high as a result of a defect in the material.

water sensitive

a water moistenable adhesive that
activates when water is applied. There are two major types of water
sensitive adhesives — dry gum and conventional gum. Generally water
sensitive adhesives only stick to paper and paper products. Some will
adhere well to glass. See also dry gum and conventional gum.

water soluble adhesive

a pressure sensitive adhesive in
which all components are water soluble. Sometimes this is referred to as
a wash away adhesive.

waterproof

a relative term applied to papers
which have been heavily treated or laminated to resist moisture. See
moisture resistance.

wax pick

testing of pick properties of coated
papers is frequently done with a wax pick test. Sticks of special wax
are melted and applied to the paper. They are removed with cool. The
result is reported as the highest number wax that does not disturb the
surface of the paper. There are other test methods of determining pick
levels.

weatherability

the capability of a pressure
sensitive label to withstand the effects of weather.

web

a continuous sheet of pliable
manufactured material, usually in roll form.

wedge

a device that plugs in between a
keyboard and a terminal. It allows data to be entered either by keyboard
or by various types of scanners.

weft

the threads that cross the warp in a
woven fabric.

wet end

the beginning of the paper machine
comprising the headbox, wire and press sections.

wet strength

the tensile strength of paper if it
is wetted after manufacture. Wet strength is increased by adding certain
synthetic resins to the furnish.

wetting

the relative ability of a liquid
adhesive to flow uniformly over the substrate.

whiteness

the degree of approach of the color
to that of the ideal white. High whiteness is associated with low purity
and high visual efficiency. Hue, saturation and brightness of color have
a bearing on apparent whiteness.

wicking

the tendency of a liquid to travel
through paper.

wire

the moving screen at the wet end of a
paper machine where the sheet is formed.

wire side

paper is made on a continuous
horizontal wire called a Fourdrinier. The side of the paper that comes
in contact with the wire takes on the impression of the pattern of the
wire. The felt side would be the opposite side of the paper. The wire
side is not as smooth as the felt side. Generally we coat adhesives on
the wire side. This allows the print surface to be as smooth as
possible.

woof

a cloth term describing the threads
cross woven. Woof is not as strong as warp. Tearing is easier across the
woof. See also warp.

wrap-around label

a label that extends completely
around a container. Usually there is an overlap of label to label.

X Dimension

The dimension of the narrowest bar
and narrowest space in a bar code.

yellowing

A defect manifested by a gradual
color change in the original appearance of a pressure sensitive label.